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  1. #21
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    CALIPHATE OF BANU UMAYYAH (FIRST PHASE)

    In the Khilfat ar-Rashida (Rightly-Guided caliphate), the first two caliphs were neither from Banu Umayyah nor from Banu Hashim. These were the best periods of caliphate. The third was related to family of Banu Umayyah and fourth to Banu Hashim. There had been historical rivalry between Banu Umayyah and Banu Hashim as both tried to excel each other. That is probably why Banu Ummayyah first opposed the Prophet (s), who belonged to the tribe of Banu Hashim. Prophet (s) honored the Banu Ummayyah and gave them good posts according to their capabilities. He never chose racial/tribal discrimination to individual excellence.

    Banu Ummayyah by virtue of their personal merit, were regarded as an integral part of the Islamic caliphate. After the appointment of Uthman bin Affan (r.a) as the caliph, Banu Umayyah took advantage of his mild nature and Marwan bin Al-Hakam’s remaining in authority, increased their power and influence. With the martyrdom of Uthman (r.a) and the conspiracy hatched by the Munafiqin and Jews posing as Muslims helped them establish their control even more. Ali bin Abi Talib (r.a) had to face greater difficulties during his rule because he was from Banu Hashim.

    Banu Ummayyah made Damascus their capital and ruled over the whole Islamic world for 90 years and their caliphate and ruled continued in Spain for several hundred years. The rule of Banu Abbas family in Baghdad lasted for more than 500 years. Banu Abbas are Banu Hashim but they are descendants of the Prophet (s) uncle and not the descendants of the Prophet ‘s daughter. Sadat (plural for Sayed) is a title of respect and referred to the Prophet’s descendants through Fatimah bint Muhammad (r.a). Theirs is no mixing of blood of the Abbasids with the Prophet (s)’s blood. A ruling family in Egypt claimed to be Fatimid but researched showed hat to be false. In India, there was a family that called themselves Sadat but it’s well known that Khidr Khan, ruler of Multan, who was its first ancestor was no Sayed. He was called Sayed by a mystic saint only because of it being a title of respect.

    Amir Mu’awiyah (r.a)

    Amir Mu’awiyah (r.a) was born 17 years before the Hijra and was junior to Ali bin Abi Talib (r.a) by 6 years. His mother Hind bint Utba was first married to Faka bin Mughira Quraishi who kicked her out on accusation of infidelity. Her father took her and Faka and his people to soothsayer who absolved her of the accusation and stated she will give birth to a son who will be king. Faka tried to take her back but she rejected him stating the king will not come from him and married Abu Sufyan. Abu Sufyan was not more than 40 when Mu’awiyah was born. He was 10 years older than the Prophet (s). Mu’awiyah was called ‘Choro (Kisra) of the Arabs from the beginning and stood out by his virtue of wisdom, good management, love of peace and moderation. In last days of his life, his belly bulged a little and so he used to read the Khutba while sitting on the pulpit. This mode of address while sitting was started by him. He came with his father on day of Conquest of Makkah and embraced Islam at the age of 25 and remained with the Prophet (s) until the latter’s death. When the Prophet (s) saw him, he said, “This is the Choro (Kisra) of Arabia. The day Mu’awiyah (r.a) leaves the world, you will see that lots of heads will be severed from their bodies.” He accompanied the Prophet (s) on the expedition of Hunain and the siege of Taif. After that the Prophet (s) performed Umrah and went to Madinah and Mu’awiyah also went to Madinah and was appointed as one of the recorders of the revelation. Also, on behalf of the Prophet (s) he used to entertain and make arrangements for the board and lodging of foreign delegates.

    Amir Mu’awiyah (r.a) has narrated 163 Ahadith. Amir Mu’awiyah (r.a) himself says, “I hoped to be the caliph the moment when the Prophet (s) told me that when you become a king, treat people with kindness.” He knew how to join the hearts and that strengthened his rule. One day he himself said, “The success I had against Ali bin Abi Talib (r.a) was due to 4 factors:


    1. I used to guard my secretes while Ali (r.a) disclosed everything to the people
    2. My army was obedient while Ali’s army was disobedient
    3. I did not take part in the Jamal war (The war between Ali (r.a) and Aisha (r.a))
    4. I was popular with the Quraish while its people were displeased with Ali (r.a)


    He ruled for 20 years. During his rule, Islamic territory expanded n all 4 directions. No Islamic territory or province remain apart from his government. No rebellion broke out, no robberies or disorder which took place in Iraq and Iran during Ali’s time took place. Muslims began fighting naval battles and became a strong naval power. He was the first to appoint postmen and establish a system and organization and called it postal department. He was first to invent the system of putting seal on orders and keeping a copy of every order preserved in the caliph’s office. He had all the old covers of the Kaba removed and started the practice of removing the old cover before putting the new one on. He was first in Islam to introduce the system of keeping watchmen and door keepers. He was first to establish registry department and first to have ships built and prepare a naval force.

    He died at the age of 70 from old age and being ill. He had in his possession some hair and a nail of the Prophet (s) which he requested be put into his mouth and on his eyes. Dhahak bin Qais led the funeral prayer and he was buried between Bab Jabia (Jabia gate) and Bab Sagheer (Sagheer gate) in Damascus.

    Important events

    When Amir Mu’awiyah (r.a) took office, there were 3 kinds of people in respect of faith and action in the Islamic world. First group was of the partisans of Ali. They thought that Ali (r.a) deserved the Caliphate and after him, his progeny gets it. But it dwindled after the renunciation of the throne by Imam Hasan (r.a). The 2nd group was of partisans of Mu’awiyah or Banu Umayyah. It included whole of Syria and some Arabia tribes like Banu Kalb. The third group was of Khawarij who considered the first to be strayed and into unbelief and thus used all their power against them. Majority of the Khawarij were in Iraq, mostly Basra and Kufa.

    Soon as Amir Mu’awiyah took office, he had to deal with the Khawarij. Farwan bin Naufil Ashajai and 500 other Khawarij went from Kufa to Nakhlia to oppose him. Mu’awiyah used common sense instead of using strong measures and assembled the Kufis and said to them that those people are your kin and so you should go talk some sense into them. They did not listen but decided to fight the people of Ashja tribe and thus were reduced to only 150. After that they fled to different towns of Iraq and Iran.

    Zeyad bin Abi Sufyan was from the partisans of Ali and, well known for his intelligence, and very successful at ruling over Persia. His mother Sumayya was a salve of Harith bin Kilab Thagafi. People had doubts about who is real father was. Abu Sufyan married Sumayya before embracing Islam and Zeyad was born of them. To get him under control, Amir Mu’awiyah (r.a) recognized him as his brother, changed his name in the papers and expanded his territories and made him governor of Basra and instructed him to set and keep the people of Basra on the right path. People of Basra had grown very undisciplined where theft, robbery and sedition were rampant everywhere. He ordered martial law soon as he got there and got people back in line in a few days.

    Khawarij used to raise their heads off and on in rebellion in Iraq and Persia but Zeyad and Mughira together stamped them out. Mughira wasn’t as bold as Zeyad so the Khawarij was more willing to rebel and attack in his area.

    The Northern borders of Syria always faced danger from Roman Empire. Egypt and North Africa were also under constant attack by the Romans. In 45 AH, a naval attack on the Roman capital of Constantinople was initiated to put an end to the air of invulnerability they enjoyed and shattered the future ambitions of the Christians that they would not dare to look toward Islamic borders. Muslims laid siege to the city but the attacks were unsuccessful but the consequences of the invasion achieved an important objective. Roman emperor and his army considered themselves as lucky to avoid a conquest and they did not want to provoke another attack so they stopped attacking Islamic borders.

    In 50 AH, Oqba bin Nafi was made commander in chief of Egypt, Barqa and Sudan and he invaded Tunis and Tripoli. In the same year, administrator of Makran (coastal area of modern Pakistan and Iran) and Baluchistan, Abdullah bin Sawar, attacked Sindh but was martyred. Mahlab bin Abi Safra than captured a large of Sindh.

    Mughira bin Shoba influenced Amir Mu’awiyah (r.a) to nominate his son, Yazid, as the next caliph to avoid the bloodshed like that of Uthman (r.a). He went around to different cities to talk to nobleman and wrote to governors and orchestrated the whole plan to have Yazid be nominated and Bai’ah be taken at his hand.

    In 51 AH, Mu’awiyah went to Madinah to get Bai’ah from the people and the 4 that were not for it, Abdullah bin Zubair, Abdullah bin Umar, Abdullah bin Abbas and Husain bin Ali (r.a) all went to Makkah. Mu’awiyah rewarded those sided with him by giving bigger allowances and loans from the state treasury and not to insist on taking it back to avoid opposition.

    In 53 AH, Zeyad bin Abu Sufyan died of plague. He had requested to be made governor of Hijaz and rest of the Arabs beside Iraq and Persia. His request was granted and this news terrified the people of Hijaz who went to Abdullah bin Umar to seek a way to be safe from Zeyad’s rule. They made dua by turning to face Kaba.

    In 58 AH, Ummul-Muminin Aisha (r.a) passed away and was buried in Jannat al-Baqi. She used to oppose Marwan because his deeds were not good.

    In 59 AH, Abu Huraira (r.a) died. He often made the dua, “O Allah! I seek your protection against the rule of young boys.” His prayers were answered and he died before 60 AH.

    Beginning of Rajab 60 AH, Mu’awiyah (r.a) fell ill and called for his son Yazid who was away hunting. He asked Yazid how he will rule and he said by the book of Allah and the Sunnah of the Prophet (s). He advised Yazid to also follow the sunnah of Abu Bakr (r.a) but he refused, than advised him to follow sunnah of Umar (r.a) but he refused, than advised him to follow sunnah of Uthman (r.a) but refused that also. He then gave some other advice and said the Iraqis will put Husain bin Ali (r.a) against you and if you gain victory over him then don’t slay him and give due regard for kingship. Yazid then left and rejoined the hunt party while Mu’awiyah (r.a)’s condition got worst and he passed away on Thursday, 22 Rajab 60 AH.

  2. #22
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    Yazid bin Mu’awiyah

    He was born in 25 AH or 26 AH. He was very fat and hairy. He’s mother’s name was Maisoon bint Bahdal who came from the tribe of Banu Kalab. He loved hunting and was well versed in composing poetry. He was not present when his father passed away. He came to visit but then left again for his hunting while his father passed away. He came back several days later and prayed the funeral prayer. In life time of Amir Mu’awiyah, Bay’at was taken at his hand even though many were unhappy with it and a few great people of Madinah even refused to take it.

    Waleed bin Utba was the governor of Madinah and he was instructed to take Bay’at from the people on behalf of Yazid. Abdullah bin Zubair (r.a) and Husain bin Ali (r.a) requested some time and at night they left the city of Makkah. Since there was no danger from Abdullah bin Umar (r.a), no one forced him or asked him to take the bay’at. Soon as Abdullah bin Zubiar (r.a) entered Makkah, Abdullah bin Safwan bin Umayya from among the nobles of the Makkah took bay’at at his hand followed by 2,000 noblemen and influential people. He put Harith under house arrest and took over Makkah. He took bay’at not for the sake of caliph but rather so Yazid is not accepted as caliph.

    He ruled for 3 years and 8 months. During his period no territorial victories outside of North Africa came to Muslims. Greatest blunder of his caliphate was the Imam Husain (r.a)’s martyrdom. He was first married to Umm Hisham bint Utba bin Rabiya and had two sons, Muawiya and Khalid. He loved Khalid more but made Muawiya his successor. He then married Umm Kulthum bint Abdullah bin Amir who gave birth to Abdullah bin Yazid. There were also few sons born of his female slaves.

    Karbala

    Inhabitants of Kufa, since the time of Amir Mu’awiyah, used to write to Imam Husain (r.a) repeatedly to visit Kufa where they would take bay’at for his caliphate. They sent a letter stating:

    “We are your father’s admirers and enemies of Banu Umayyah. We fought Talha (r.a) and Zubair (r.a) in support of your father. We created havoc in the battle of Siffin and made the Syrians acknowledge our superiority in valor. Now we are prepared to fight along with you also. Please leave for Kufa as soon as you read this letter. Come here so that we might kill Noman bin Bashir and hand over Kufa to you. 100,000 fighters are present in Kufa and all of them are ready to take bay’at for your caliphate. We believe that you are the rightful and worthy caliph. Yazid does not deserve to be caliph in comparison with you. This is the time. Do not delay in the least. We want to make you caliph of the entire Islamic world by killing Yazid. Our elders have even stopped standing in prayer behind Yazid’s official, Noman bin Bashir because we think you and your deputies to be worthy of the Imamat (Islamic leadership).

    More and more letters followed after that one. Finally, Husain bin Ali (r.a) sent Muslim bin Aqil (r.a) to Kufa to find out the truth. When he arrived to Kufa, people started taking bay’at at his hand for Husian (r.a). Hearing about this Obaidullah bin Zeyad was sent to take charge of Kufa. In Basra he and captured the emissary of Husain (r.a) and did a public execution while no one showed any sign of disapproval. He then went to Kufa. He left his cavalry in Qadisya and went to Kufa on a camel while put on a turban like the people of Hijaz. When he entered between Maghreb and I shah time, the people thought he was Husain (r.a), he went straight to Noman’s house and entered in there. Soon the army started entering the city as well. See all this Muslim bin Aqil (r.a) left the house he was staying at and took refuge in Hani bin Urawa’s house. Through using his spies Zeyad found out and he and Hani both were brought out. Muslim bin Aqil (r.a) came out with a sword and called for those who had taken bay’at. Only 4,000 out of 18,000 showed up and the rest answered they agreed to fight but not until Husain (r.a) arrived. the friends and relatives of the 4,000 also persuaded them to disperse. After that only 30 remained. They both were arrested and taken to Noman’s house.

    Next day 10,000 people who had taken bay’at came out demanding their release. Zeyad took them to the roof top and killed them in front of everyone and hung their bodies on a stake while their heads were taken to Yazid. Seeing them dead the crowd dispersed. Imam Husain (r.a) left Makkah thinking Muslim bin Aqil (r.a) was still taking bay’at. He was advised not to go but he didn’t listen, and then he was advised to leave the women and children but he refused that advice as well. From Hijr he sent Qais bin Mishar with a letter stating he is near and wait for him. But Qais was captured by Ibn zeyad’s soldiers and killed by being thrown off the palace’s roof. At next stage in his journey, he sent his foster brother Abdullah bin Yaqtur with a letter who also met the same fate. Husain (r.a) was intersected by Hur bin Yazsin Tamimi with 1,000 soldiers who would not let him proceed or retreated but was ordered to take him in custody. Seeing this Husain (r.a) moved to north and reached Qadisiya but Abr bin Sad along with a large army was camping there. So he left there and after covering 10 miles halted at Karbala.

    The army had reached there as well and camped out. Ibn Sad said, “Undoubtedly, you deserve the caliphate more than Yazid does but it is not the intention of Allah to let both prophethood and caliphate come into your family. You have seen the circumstances and conditions of Ali bin Abi Talib (r.a) and Hasan bin Ali (r.a). If you give up the thought of this sultanate and rule, you can easily become free otherwise your life will be in jeopardy and we have been ordered to arrest you.”

    Imam Husain (r.a) said, “I put three alternatives before you, you may choose any of them for me.

    1. Let me go the way I came so that I may remain absorbed in prayer in Makkah.
    2. Let me move to any border so that I may be martyred while fighting the unbelievers.
    3. Leave my way free and let me go to Yazid in Damascus. For your satisfaction, you may follow me. I shall go to Yazid and settle my affairs directly with him as my elder brother Imam Hasan (r.a) did with Amir Mu’awiyah (r.a).


    Amr bin Sad was very pleased to hear this and informed Obaidullah bin Zeyad with full details. Shimr Dhul Jaushan told Ibn Zeyad, “O Amir! You have an opportunity now. You may kill the Imam without hesitation. No one will blame you. However, if he goes to Yazid, you will no longer be honored and respected in comparison to him and he will be able to enjoy a greater status than you.” Upon hearing this he ordered Amr to deny all alternatives and have Husain (r.a) surrender before him and take oath of allegiances for Yazid at his hands and then he will send him to Yazid.

    Ibn Sad tried to avoid bloodshed and was corresponding back and forth for a week on this. In that time, Imam Husain (r.a)’ s men used to make prayer with Ibn Sad’s soldiers while Imam Husain (r.a) used to straighten their rows. Hearing of this Ibn Zeyad become worried. He sent Jowira bin Taimimi with a letter stating to either arrest him, fight him or cut of his head and send it to me and if you can’t then this officer is given authority to dispose you and bring you to me. Ibn Sad presented the letter to Imam Husain (r.a) who asked for one day’s time and Jowaira agreed to it. Ibn Zeyad sent Shimr Dhul Jaushan to take over the army if Ibn Sad has been arrested and to fight the imam and cut of his head and bring it to me. Shimr agreed one condition. His sister Umm Lambeen bint Haram was Ali (r.a)’s wife and bored him 4 sons, Obaidullah, Jafar, Uthman and Abbas. Shimr wanted their protection since they too were in Karbala with their brother Husain (r.a).

    Shimr took over the army wanted to fight but it was already night time and imam Husain (r.a) asked could they not wait till tomorrow to fight and so they agreed to wait. They also cut of the water supply and would not let the companions of Husain (r.a) get water. Imam Husain (r.a)’s Young son Ali bin Husain (Zain al-Abedeen) was lying ill in the tent and his sister Umm Kulthum was with him. Husain (r.a) told his companions that they are free to go wherever as they will not be bothered and the enemies only wanted him. They refused stating their desire to stay with him no matter what. Later that night, a man named Tarmah bin Adi who was visiting the vicinity went to the Imam and asked imam Husain (r.a) to go with him to the Tribe of Tai where they will give him 5,000 soldiers from their tribe to use as he likes. He thanked the man but declined, desiring to stay with his companions.

    Martyrdom of Husain (r.a)

    Next morning Shimr came and called on Obaidullah, Jafar, Uthman and Abbas saying Ibn Zeyad had given them protection, but they replied that Allah’s protection is better than his and made Shimr look like a fool. The battle started on the morning of Muharram 10, 61 AH. One tradition says there were 72 people present on Husain (r.a)’s side while another tradition puts it at 140 and another at 240. Husain (r.a) went to the troops of Kufa alone and addressed them saying:

    “O people of Kufa! I know quite well that his speech will not yield any results at this time and whatever you have to do, you will not desist from doing it. But I think it necessary to end by a plea to all for Allah’s sake and my excuse should also be made clear to you.”

    At this point the women and children started crying and he went back to quite them down and then continued his speech.

    “O People! Let it be known to you who know me and also to those of you who do not know me that I am the grandson of the Prophet (s) and the son of Ali bin Abi Talib (r.a). Fatima bint Prophet (s) was my mother and Jafar bin Abi Talib (r.a) was my uncle. Besides these genealogical pride, I have also another pride to my credit: that the Prophet (s) called me the chief of the Youths of Paradise. If you do not believe me, you may have it confirmed by a number of the Prophet (s)’s Companions who are still living. I never broke a promise, I never missed a Salat, I neither killed a Muslim nor did harm to anyone. If Jesus’ donkey was still alive, the whole Christendom would be busy feeding and taking care of it until the Day of Judgment. What sort of Muslims and followers are you who want to kill the grandson of your Prophet (s)? You have neither the fear of Allah nor are you ashamed on behalf of the Prophet (s). As I did not kill anybody in my life, I do not deserve to be subjected to retaliation. Tell me how have you concluded shedding my blood to be lawful. Having retired from worldly pursuits and disputes, I was staying in Madinah at the feet of the Prophet (s) but you did not let me live even there. I was then engaged in Allah’s worship in the House of Allah in Makkah. You people of Kufa did not let me take rest there and continued sending letters to me stating that you think me the rightful claimant to the Imamate (leadership), and want to take bay’at for my caliphate. When I responded to your call and came here, you revolted against me. If you want to help me even now, I want that you should not kill me and let me alone so that I may go to Makkah or Madinah and become absorbed in prayer and Allah will judge in this very world who was right and who was wrong.”

    All kept silent on hearing the speech and no one answered. Then he called some of them by name, Shabt bin Rabiya, Hajjaj bin Al-Hasan, Qais bin Al-Ashas, Hur bin Yazid Tamimi, and others stating did you not write me letters insisting me to come and now you want to kill me. They denied writing letters or calling Husain (r.a) to them. He then took out their letters and read them out loud and showed it to them. They replied that whether they wrote them or not, they are sick of him now.

    Hur bin Yazid Tamimi, posing as if he was attacking, put his shield before him and went on his horse towards Husain (r.a). As he got closer threw his shield away and went to him. He said he was the many who kept Husain (r.a) surrounded and not let him go but now to make up for his mistake he will fight against the Kufa soldiers alongside Husain (r.a) and requested the imam make dua for his forgiveness. First all the companions of Husain (r.a) fought until they were martyred and then all his brothers and sons fought till they were martyred and then he started fighting them. None of his enemies wanted to kill him with their own hands so they avoided and evaded him. Finally, Shimr took 6 soldiers and attacked him. Imam Husain (r.a)’s left hand was chopped off and his right hand was injured so he could not lift the sword. Sanan bin Anas Nakhi speared him from behind and it passed through his abdomen. He drew out his spear and with it Husain (r.a)’s soul was taken. Then Shimr or someone at his order severed the Imam’s head from his body and 12 horsemen were chosen to trample his body.

    They arrested the family of Husain (r.a). when Shimr saw Zain Al-Abedeen, the child, he wanted to kill him but Amr bin Sad prevented him from doing so. They all were taken to Yazid who then sent them to Damascus. Seeing the head of Husain (r.a), Yazid burst into tears and abused Obaidullah bin Zeyad saying he had never ordered Summayya’s son to kill Husain bin Ali 9r.a). Shimr and his associates were expecting some kind of reward and honor from Yazid but only expressed his displeasure and ordered them to leave. After releasing the captives he made them honored guests at his palace until they returned to Madinah.

    Hearing the martyrdom of Husain (r.a), Abdullah bin Zubair (r.a) gathered all the people and made a speech:

    “O people! No other people are worse than Iraqis and among the Iraqis, the people of Kufa are the worst. They repeatedly wrote letters and called Imam Husain (r.a) to them and took bay’at for his caliphate. But when Ibn Zeyad arrived in Kufa, they rallied around him and killed Imam Husain (r.a) who was pious, observed the fast, read the Quran and deserved the caliphate in all respects.”


    Opposition to Yazid’s Caliphate

    Abdullah bin Zubair (r.a) wrote to Yazid stating Waleed bin Utba is a great fool and should be replaced by another. Yazid replaced him with another of his cousins, Uthman bin Mohammad, as governor of Madinah. Soon as he came he started drinking, which displeased the people. He chose 20 people and sent them to Yazid in Damascus where they were well received and given great wealth. On their return back, one went to Obaidullah bin Zeyad and 9 to Madinah. When they came back they said that Yazid was seen indulging in unlawful acts and it was doubtful if he was a Muslim and Jihad should be waged against him. The people of Madinah made two of them, Abdullah bin Muti and Abdullah bin Hanzla, their chiefs and took over Madinah while Uthman bin Mohammad and all of Banu Umayyah, who numbered in 1,000, went out of Madinah and some took refuge in the house of Marwan bin Hakam.

    The people of Madinah arrested and imprisoned all of Banu Ummayyah they could find. Yazid sent Muslim bin Oqba to take care of the situation. Madinah put up a fight but were defeated and Muslim bin Oqba continued a general massacre with looting and arson for 3 days, resulting in 1,000 dead including 300 noblemen of the Quraish and the Ansar. On the 4th day he stopped the massacre and took bay’ah of those who were willing and killed those who refused. The massacre was started on 27th of Dhul Hijja 63 AH which is the same day Mohammad bin Abdullah bin Abbas bin Abdul Muttalib was born. He is known as Mohammad Abdul Abbas Safar and is regarded as the first caliph of the Abbasids.

    He then moved towards Makkah to conquer it. He was already ill and when it got worst at Abwa, he appointed Haseen bin Numer as the commander in his place and died. The attack on Makkah started on Muharram 27th 64 AH. The siege and stone firing continued until Rabia Al-Awwal 3, 64 AH. The walls of Kaba were broken under the impact of the flying stones and its roof caved in. with new reinforcements the army numbered 5,000. While this was going on, Yazid died on 10ths of Rabia Al-Awwal at Hawarin at the age of 38 or 39 after governing for 3 years and 8 months. Hearing the death of Yazid, Haseen bin Numer offered to give the caliphate to Abdullah bin Zubair (r.a) if he goes to Syria as that would be better way to do it but Abdullah bin Zubair (r.a) didn’t go. Madinah also revolted hearing Yazid was dead and so the Banu Ummayya ended up going to Syria with the army of Haseen bin Numer.

  3. #23
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    Muawiya bin Yazid

    He was about 20 years old, pious and devout. He was not interested in the caliphate and took the bay’at under pressure and after 40 days or 2 months or 3 months, accord to various traditions, died as caliph. He was already sick and when it got worse the Syrians asked him to nominate someone after him. He refused stating he had no power and was forced into this and they can do whatever they want as he has nothing to do with it.

    Ibn Zubair’s Caliphate in Iraq & Egypt

    His caliphate was accepted only by the Syrians and the Egyptians. People of Hijaz and taken bay’at at Abdullah bin Zubair’s hands. Obaidullah bin Zeyad tried to get bait from people of Basra and Kusra but failed and he helplessly went to Damascus. They sent delegation to Abdullah bin Zubair (r.a) and recognized his caliphate. The partisans of Husain in Kufa also fathered at Sulaiman bin Sard Khazai’s house and took bay’at at his hands to started to work secretly to get more people so they can avenge Husain’s blood.

    When the governor of Egypt, Abdu Rahman bin Jehdan, heard of the death of Muawiya bin Yazid, he took bay’at for Abdullah bin Zubair through a delegation. Noman bin Basheer and Zafar bin Harith were governors of Hims (Homs, central Syria) and Qansareen (one of 5 original provinces that conquering Arabs divided greater Syria into, now northern Syria0 also thought it proper to recognized Abdullah bin Zubair (r.a)’s caliphate.

    Muslim bin Zeyad met the same fate as his brother Obaidullah bin Zeyad in that the people of Khorasan also rejected him and his bay’at having him go to Damascus.


    Marwan bin Hakam

    Marwin bin Hakam bin Abi Al-Aas bin Umayyah bin Abd Shams bin Abd Manaf was born in 2 A.H. His mother was known by the name of Amna bint Alqaman bin Safwan. He was a head clerk and minister during Uthman bin Affan (r.a)’s period of caliphate. During Amir Muawiya’s reign, he governed Madinah several times and after him Abdullah bin Zubair (r.a) had been caliph for six or seven months after which Marwin took over Syria and thus can be considered a rebel.

    Battle of Marj Rahat

    After death of Muawiya bin Yazid, there appeared two sects in Syria. One was Banu Ummayyah claiming right to caliphate stating it belongs to their tribe and the other was Dahhak bin Qais, the governor of Damascus with his like minded officers and administrators who inwardly supported Abdullah bin Zubair’s caliphate.

    Dahhak had 1,000 followers at Marj Rahat while Banu Ummay and Banu Kalb together brought 5,000 to station at Jabia. Deputy of Dahhak back in Damascus was expelled by Yazid bin Anis and treasury was captured. Marwan coaxed people to consider him for caliphate rather than Khalid bin Yazid stating Khalid is young now and they need someone clever and experienced. At time of battle, Marwan brought 13,000 warriors to fight while Dahhak gathered four times more fighters. The battle went for 20 days and then Marwan took the upper hand by suddenly attacking at midnight while peace negotiations were going on and fighting was on hold. Banu Kalb and Banu Qais had rivalry since days of ignorance and death of Amir Muawiyah (r.a) brought these rivalries back.

    After the victory and returning to Damascus, Marwan married Khalid bin Yazid’s mother to get Banu Kalb’s support and avoid danger of Khalid’s succession. He then advanced to Palestine and Egypt in 65 A.H. and either killed or banished the followers of Abdullah bin Zubair.

    Battle of Tawwabeen (Pentients)

    Sulaiman bin Sard took took bayt from 17,000 warriors and advanced He was to the Syrian border on 5th of Rabia al-Awwal. He and his followers wanted to avenged the death of Imam Husain (r.a). He was told all the killers were in Kufa so why go there and he replied he was going after the leader and deal with the soldiers later. His army went to Karbala and wept there at the grave of Husain (r.a) buried there without his head. Then they went to Ain Al Wardah and encamped there. Haseen bin Numer took 12,000 men by order of Obaidullah bin Zeyad, who was newly appointed governor of Mosul. The battle started on 26th of Jumad al-Awwal. Ibn Zeyad sent 8,000 followed by 10,000 more soldiers as reinforcement during the course of the battle. Then during the evening Sulaiman and all of the great leaders of Kufa were killed with few surviving who escaped during the night. Sulaiman and his associates were known as Tawwabeen (pentients) meaning they had committed the crime of causing Imam Husain (r.a) to be killed by betraying him and then became penitent and tried to compensate for it.


    To be continued...



 

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