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    Default THE HISTORY OF ISLAM (v 1-3)

    Assalaamu 'alaikum wa rahmatullaah wa Barakaatuh,

    I have been reading this history book and have found it well detailed. I have been writing summary notes as well while reading. It is a volume set that is a must for every Muslim's household. Inshallah if one can, they should buy the set for their home. It would also make a great gift item for others. I"m creating this thread so I can share my summary notes on here inshallah, in the hope that others can benefit from them. However, these are condensed summary notes only, for quick reading and look up of important historical events.

    For those that do take information from here to use or pass around, it would be appreciated it if the link of this page is shared as the original source.


    By: Akbar Shah Najeebabadi
    Revised by: Safi-ur-Rahman Mubarakpuri

    HOI.jpgHOI back.jpg

    Amazon Description:

    History stands as the most effective and valuable source of putting nation on the course of progress and prosperity and saving them from the path of disgrace and degradation. At a time, when there is tough competition among the nations of the world to excel one another, the Muslim, despite having the most glorious history, appear to be detached and careless as regards their history. This book presents the true Islamic events and their actual causes before the English readers because the other books in the English language found on the Islamic history have been written by such authors and compilers who did no justice in presenting the true picture of Islamic Era but their prejudice prevented them from doing so.

    Reader review:

    This 3 volume book starts off with a brief Introduction to 'history" as a subject dealing with types of history, sources of history, and the position of Islamic history amongst the histories of the world. It then describes Arabia before the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) and then gives detailed accounts of events from Prophet's birth right down to his death. The problem of Khilafat and the events after the Prophet's (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) death and the biographies of the 4 rightly guided Khalifas and their reigns. A brief biography of Hasan bin Ali is also provided along with important events during his very brief Khilafat, including the false story of his poisoning. The 2 vol starts with the Khilafat of Amir Muawiya and then Yazid's reign along with the Kerbala disaster. After that the ummayad and the abbasid caliphates are discussed.The last vol contains the Spain before and after Islam and Egypt dynasties and the Ottoman empire. If you are looking for one book which covers all aspects of Islamic history then this is a must have. However it would have been beneficial if the sources of hadiths were mentioned as it definitely left me wondering if some of the events are based on weak hadiths! Also it would have been appropriate to let us know of any discrepancies in certain events and obviously references to the original sources.

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    This thread will be locked so as to serve only as an information resource. Any comments or feedback is welcomed at the thread below.

    Feedback for THE HISTORY OF ISLAM (v 1-3)

    I will start posting the summaries from volume 1 and move on to volume 2 and so forth. Once I start volume two, I'll post the # of the starting posting below for quick jump to that part and the same with Volume 3. Inshalalh I'll up date this post often to reflect the progress.

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    Volume 1


    Chapter 1

    Country of Arabia
    Moral Conditions of Arabia
    Arabian Ignorance and OtherCountries

    Chapter 2

    Prophet Muhammad(s) Background
    Birth & Early Life of Prophet Muhammad (s)
    Migration Year 4
    Migration Year 8


    Abu Bakr Saddiq (r.a)
    Rome and Persia
    Umar bin Al-Khattab (r.a)
    Conquest of Damascus
    Sa’d bin Waqqas in Iraq


    Uthamn bin Affan (r.a)
    Events of 30-35 AH
    Ali bin Abu Talib (r.a)
    More Mischief of the Saba Sect
    Hasan (r.a)


    I have attached a PDF file below containing all the notes for volume 1. Subsequent posts will have same information till volume 2.
    Attached Files

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    The Arabian Peninsula is bonded on the east by the Arabian Gulf and Oman; on the south by Arabian Sea or Indian Ocean; on the west by Red Sea; on the north by Jordan and Iraq. Total area of the Peninsula is 1,250,000 sq miles of which 450,000 sq miles are pure desert. The most famous desert is known as Ar-Rub’ Al-Khali (the Empty Quarter) which stretches over an area of 250,000 sq miles and extends to the southeast from middle of the Arabia.

    To the south and of Ar-Rub’ Al-Khali is San’a, which is the famous city of Yemen, situated on the coast of the Arabian Sea and the Red Sea. At the time of advent of Islam it was the center for Christians in Arabia. To the west of Ar-Rub’ Al-Khali lies Asir and Najran, and to the north lies Najd on the east of towards Bahrain. Hijaz is situated at the west of najd and east of the Red Sea, it includes cities of Makkah, Madina, and the harbors of Jeddah and Yanbu. In side Ar-Rub’ Al-Khali and between Hadramout and Yamamah (northeastern of Najd) is a famous desolate place called Al-Ahqaf, it is a dwelling place of the People of Ad.


    The progeny of Sam (Shem), the son of Nuh (Noah) r.s., had inhabited Arabia. The Arabs of Arabia can be divided into three groups; they are Arab Ba'idah, Arab Aribah, and Arab Musta'ribah.

    Arab Ba’idah

    These people were the earliest inhabitant and have all perished without leaving any trace behind. Some of the earliest tribes of these people were called Ad, Thamud, Abil, Amaliqah, Tasm, Jadais, Umaim, Jurhum, Hadramout, Hadur, and Abd Dkham, etc. These were all progeny of Sam (sem) bin Nuh. They had dominated whole of Arabia and some of their kings expanded their military conquests up to Egypt. Some relics of evidence of their existence have been found in Najd, Ahqaf, and Hadramout. These were the strongest civilization of their time; among them the tribe of Ad was most renowned. These people lived in Ahqaf. Ad bin Aus bin Iram bin sam by whose name this tribe became famous was the first and foremost king of Arabia. He had three sons, shaddad, Shadid, and Iram, each ruled one after another. The Quran mentions about the Iram tribe in Surah 89:6-8. Before Ad, his father As was also a king. A king named Jairun bin Sa’d bin Ad bin Aus of this very dynasty had rampaged Syria and built a house of marble and precious stone, and named it Iram.

    Prophet Hud (a.s.) was sent to the Ad tribe but they disobeyed and were destroyed. Ad was followed by Abil, Amaliqah, Thamud, and Abd Dhakm until Ya’rub bin Qhatan brought their end and set a beginning of a new era. Prophet Saleh (a.s.) was sent to Thamud people in Hijr. All these tribes were from the progeny of Sam, son of Nuh (Noah a.s.).

    Arab Aribah

    These Arabs are the progeny of Qahtan, who were the first to use the Arabic language, amalgamated from the Arab Ba’idah. The Qahtan tribes are divided into two types, Yemeniah and Sabaiyah. Scholars are divided on the origin of Qhatan, the Torah doesn’t mention it but Qane and Yaqtan are mentioned in it. Most confirmed and accepted view is that Qahtan and Yaqtan are the same person and Qahtan does not precede Banu Ismail.

    1 sam.jpg
    Progeny of Banu sham, pp 56

    Qahtan tribes produced some famouse kings who ruled whole of Arabia. Ya’rub bin Qahtan did away with all the races and traces of Arab Ba’idah. Their origin is said to be in Yemen, with Himyari and Azdi tribes bieng most reknowned. Queen Bilqis (sheba) was from this tribe. One of the tribes of Azdi shifted to Madinah, the Khuza’ah to Makkah, defeaing the Jurhum tribe there, and others moved other parts of Arabia (Oman, Syria, etc). At time of the advent of Islam, Qahtan tribes were very strong and in control of Arabia.

    Arab Musta’ribah (Mixed Arabs)

    These Arabs are referred to as Adnan tribe and are the progeny of Islam (Ishmael a.s.). Ibrahim (Abraham a.s.)’s mother tongue was Ajami or Persian. Ibrahim (a.s.) left Ismail and his mother Hajira (Hagar) in makkah where they learned Arabic from the Qahtani tribe Jurhum. Ismail’s mother passed away when he was 15 and so he decided to leave and settle in Syria but the people of Jurhum requested to stay. He then married to Amarah bint Saeed bin Usamah belonging to the Amaliqah family. After a while he divorced her per the advice of his father Ibrahaim (a.s.) and married Syedah bint Mudad bin Amr of the Jurhum tribe.

    Shortly after that the kaba was built by the father and the son. When the walls go too high, Ibrahim used a stone to stand on to continue building and that became to known as the station of Ibrahim. When the Ka’ba was near completion Jibril (Gabriel a.s.) brought the Hajar Aswad (the Black Stone) to be the final peace of the Ka’ba. After the rebuilding of the Ka’ba, Ibrahim (a.s) and Ismail (a.s.) took their followers and did the hajj, and later one Ibrahim (a.s) would visit every year to do the Hajj.

    Tribe of Jurhum (Jurhum the second) was settled in Makkah, so the Amaliqah tribe (not same as tribe Amaliqah tribe of Arab Ba’idah) settled in suburbs of Makkah. Some people from these tribes stuck to their own faith and some believed in Ismail (a.s), who according to Torah lived to be 137. The trusteeship of Ka’bah and leadership of Makkah remained with the descendants of Makkah. Among his children was Adnan, son of Kedar. Progeny of Adnan cincludes all of the reknowned tribes of Banu Ismail and thus Arab Musta’ribah are called people of Adnan. Son of Adanan was Ma’d, his grandson was called Nizar. Nizar had 4 sons from whom all the Adnan tribes branched out. As a result all the Adnan tribes are called Ma’di or Nizari.

    2 qahtan.jpg
    Progeny of Banu Qahtan, pp 58

    Adnan Tribes

    Iyyad, Rab’iah and Mudar were the famous ones among the Adnan tribes. Mudar belonged to the kinanah tribe which had an eminent person named Fihr bin malik, also called Quraish. Progeny of Quraish gave birth to many times, among them: Banu Sahm, Makhzum, Jumh, Taim, Adi, Abdud-Dar, Zuhrah, and Abd Manaf. Abd Manaf has four sons, Abd Shams, Naufal, Abdul-Muttalib and Hashim. Prophet Muhammad (s) bin Abdullah bin Abdul-Muttalib bin Hashim was born in this tribe.

    When the Adnan tribes, defeated by Khuz’ah, left Makkah, they spread all over Arabia. Only the Quraish tribes from among the Adnan remained living in makkah. Suai bin Kilab (in 5th century Christian Era) united the Quraish tribes and brought Makkah and entire Hijaz area under his control. The trusteeship of House of Kaba once again came to the Adnan tribe. Qusai did some repair on the Kaba, built a big palace for himself of which a spacious hall (called Dar-un-Nadwah) was set aside for community events, meetings and serious discussions. Qursai also propsed serving food for 3 days during hajj and all of Quraish mak contributions to that cause.

    Qusai died in 480 CE and his son Abdud-Dar became his successor. After his death, his grandsons and sons of his brother Abd Manaf had a quarrel and mediation by influential people of Makkah remedied that by defining each group’s responsibilities, such as providing water, collection of contributions and taxes, and acting host to the pilgrims. After short time Abd Manaf’s son Abd Shams handed over his right to rule to his younger brother Hashim.

    Hashim married the daughter of the chieftain of Al-Madinah. She gave birth to a son named Shaibah. Hashim died while his son was still young, so Muttalib became ruler of Makkah. He came and got nephew Shaibah when the nephew had grown up a bit. When he returned, the Makkans mistook his nephew as his slave and thus his name became Abdul-Muttalib (slave of Muttalib). It was during the time of Abdul-Muttalib that an Army from Abyssinia headed by Abrahah attacked Makkah with elephants but was wiped out by Allah. Of all the tribes in the whole Arabia, Abd Manaf was considered most noble and respectable.

    Progeny of Banu Adnan, pp 60

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    Assertions of Dignity

    Under the given circumstances and described condition of Arabian environment, to traits of character developed among the Arabs. One was the development of the art of poetry and the other the effort to survive. This hardship way of life made them extremely fond of fighting and testing their strength. Constant mutual combat led to self-praise and a growing discretion of exhibiting a sense of dignity. Idleness and indulgence in poetry led them to lovemaking and drinking. Prophets were sent to Qahtan Arabs as they were sent to previous nations but they paid very little attention to it and could not benefit from the teachings because of their own rebellious attitude and undisciplined thinking.

    When Qahtan tribes were declining, Banu Ismail (Adnan tribes) emerged as the successors but the invasion of Makkah by the Khuza’ah tribe and defeat of Jurhum tribe violated the power and dignity of Adnan tribes and led to fierce rivalry between Adnan and Qahtan tribes, giving birth to small clans. This anarchy and unbridled freedom led to immorality, misbehavior, and disrespectful rudeness all over Arabia. Reverence of for the Kabah and performing Hajj was a sign of power for all Arabs. Helping the helpless and the oppressed and keeping firm against the oppressors were qualities appreciated by all; also timidity and miserliness were taken as the greatest defects and worst of flaw of character. Light of Islam came when Arabs were lost in this darkness.

    Months of Peace

    Several months were fixed in which all fighting was halted. During this time people would visit the Kabah, do the Hajj, and large commercial fairs were held.

    Faith and Religion

    Before the appearance of Islam, the Arabs were in a state where some tribes acknowledged neither the Creator nor the reward and punishment while others did. Mostly they worshipped idols and stars, some worshipped fire also. They had transformed Kabah into a center of idolatry with 360 idols kept inside it.

    Jews came from Syria and settled in Medina, this started shortly after the death of Musa (Moses a.s.). Among them were Banu Quraizah, Nadir, and Qanuqa. Some Christians also settled in the Ghassan and Najran area where some people of Quza’ah tribe converted to Christianity.

    1. Idolatry

    Four hundred years before coming of the Prophet (s) in the era of King Shapur of Persia, Amr bin Luhai bin Harithah bin Imra’ul-Qais bin Tha’labah bin Mazin bin Azd bin Kahlan bin Bablion bin Saba, the king of Hijaz, was the first to install the idol Hubal at the top of the Kabah and placed two idols Isaf and Nailah (female idol) at the well of the Zamzam and convinced the people to worship them. Yaguth, Ya’uq, Nasr, Wadd and Suwa were adopted by different tribes for each of them had its separate idols.

    In Arabia, there were other centers of idolatry besides the Kabah. Ghatfan had constructed a house similar to the Kabah and called it Qalis and they even performed hajj there. Banu Khath’am had also built a house calling it Dhul’Khalasah to perform Hajj there. Dhul-Ka’bat was the center for worship of the Rabi’ah. On top of the Kabah there was another idol called Shams. Pictures of Ibrahim, Ismail, Isa (Jesus) and Maryam (a.s) were also worshiped in the Kabah.

    2. Sacrifice

    The idolaters brought camels for offer to their idols during hajj. They would suspend shoes from the necks of the camels and mark them to signify them as sacrificial animals. Nobody would then get in the way of the animals. Some tribes even sacrificed humans to the idols. According to some historians, the Arabs believed in Oneness of God and took these idols as intermediaries to intercede with Allah for them.

    3. Star-worshiping

    This was very common with many idols named after the stars. Moon was worshiped more than any other object. From surah Nuh in the Quran, it comes to light that even during the era of Nuh (a.s) the Iraqi Arabs worshiped idols named after the stars.

    4. Soothsaying

    Many type of soothsayers were found in the Arabia. Kahin was one who claimed to have information about the unseen events of the past, while an Arraf claimed to know the future. A nazir could tell about the unseen by focusing their eyes on a mirror or on a tray of water. They were in same category but ranked below the soothsayers while those making amulets were considered the lowest type.

    5. Omens

    Arabs believed in good and bad omens. They believed crows as very inauspicious and something that causes separation and an owl’s hooting cries caused death and destruction. Sneezing also was seen as ill omen. Some of them were sorcerers who exercised in befriending Satan.


    Fight would break out over petty things and hostilities would last several generations and even centuries. Most disputes would be settled by a challenge to single combat. They had great zest for fighting and killing and took pride in their horses, swords and other armory.

    Illicit Sex

    They had no custom of observing Hijab (covering of the women) and anyone who never fell in love with a strange woman was disrespected. Some tribes were renowned for their love making, Banu Adhrah being one.


    Everyone participated in poetry from the young to hold, women, men and children. They so were proud of their eloquence and command of language that they called the non-Arabs as unable to speak. But the Quran shattered their arrogance and they had to bow before the glory of the book of Allah. Allah challenged them to produce one ayah like it and they were unable to.

    Passion for Hunting

    This was widely done with such enthusiasms that they had names for various hunting activities.

    Food and Clothes

    Yemen had been noted for its cloth from ancient times but rest of Arabia neither produced silk nor cotton, and so the clothing was very simple. Wearing coarse clothes with leather patches was customary Garments were woven from camel and sheep hair, and these cloths were also used for making tents and for bedding and carpeting. Food was also very simple with meat and milk being the most common. Cheese, battered barley grain, dates, olive oil, and Harirah were the common items.


    Arabia had two types of people; one lived in cities and was settled while the other large group lived a nomadic lifestyle. The deceit, cheating and conniving in trade and business was common as was raiding and highway robbery. Some would cover the wells with grass and dirt so the traveler would die of thirst while others were expert in committing theft. These thieves were called Dhuban-ul-Arab (wolves of Arabia)


    Conceit reached its peak during the Arabian Ignorance. As result of this, they never listened to the good counsel and preaching of the Prophets and the religious guides for obedience was a trait of shameful to them.

    Unending Malice

    In case they failed to take revenge on their enemy or assassin, this task would be passed down to son and grandsons till the revenge was sought.

    Mourning the dead

    Upon death of someone, relatives would tear at their faces and hair and cry in pain. Women would follow the funeral with their hair untied and head dusted. Like the Hindus of India, women in Arabia would shave their heads.

    Superstition and Credulity

    They believed in the existence of Jinns, demons and fairies. They also believed fairies could fall in love with human male and jinn could form physical contact with human females. They believed Jurhum was born from union of a human and an angel, and also same about Queen Bilqis of Saba (Queen Sheeba).

    They used to keep three arrows before the idols and would write La (no) on one, Nam (yes) on the other, and nothing on the third. They would draw these arrows decide on going ahead with their plans to do something or not. They would tie a knot on a thin branch of a certain type tree called Ratm when going on a journey. On the way back if the knot was untied, they believed that their wives cheated on them. To read more see pp 76.

    Killing of Daughters

    This custom was rampant among the Banu Tamim and the Quraish. They took it as a status of symbol. In some tribes when their daughters reached age 5 or 6 and started uttering sweet words, the father would dress her up beautifully and take her outside his settlement where he already had dug a grave and push her in, then he would stone her to death and bury there. Some tribes did this act more than others.


    Arabs were very fond of this. They would gamble with arrows which had no feathers. They also would bury something in the sand, move it around and make two heaps and ask which heap the object was hidden in.

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    All that was described previously was the condition of Arabia before Islam came.

    Persia (Iran)

    Persia was among the most renowned, ancient and venerable civilizations. During ancient times they worshiped the moon follower by many reformers. The Persians surpassed all other nations in terms of progress and development. But at the time of appearance of Islam they had become so low and depraved that they had lost most of their good qualities after falling into polytheism. They had given Zoroaster a divinity status and worshiped him and fire worship also became rampant. Theft and highway robbery also became common. Adultery, mutual dissension and bestiality, malice and enmity, cheating and deceit, treating the weak by the strong more disgracefully all had become common.

    Greece and Rome

    Roman empire too was a great empire in its time. It was well advanced in medicine, mathematics, astronomy, logic, and philosophy. But during the 6th and 7th centuries it steeped into degradation and depravity like that of Persia. Slavery, abuse of slaves, adultery and homosexuality was rampant.

    Depravity of the Christians

    For the first 200 years after the birth of Isa (Jesus a.s.) there were no monks. During 6th century, number of months increased to such an extent that anyone that wanted high esteem would become a month. Gradually women too joined in and the monasteries became centers of all kinds of shameful acts. Respect of women and parents had no place, theft, adultery and cheating was common. Begging was the way of life.


    Since this is an agricultural country; it became the target of successive foreign attacks when it had grown weak. Persians, Greeks and Romans invaded it time and again and kept it under their control for long periods of time. Christianity was followed by a large segment of the population during the reign of Romans. Before the advent of Islam, it was country immersed in darkness and depravity. Christianity in Egypt was no better than pure idolatry. All the defects that were part of Egyptian idolatry could be found among the Christians. Slavery was rife, alluring principles and rules were set up for committing adultery and pillage. Humans were killed as source of entertainment and women were encouraged to commit suicide.


    It is was era where Buddhism was declining and making way for Brahmanism. Idolatry was rampant and idol worship was considered means of deliverance both in Buddhism and Brahmanism. Like Egypt, they too had set up rules for committing adultery, which was made part of their religious rites. The Rajahs of Sindh set the example of marrying their own sisters.


    China was worse than all the others. The mixture of Confucianism, Taoism and Buddhism had made a mess of the cultural and moral condition of China. Peace returned to China only when a band of Muslims settled in China and impressed others with their high moral and examples. Human population existed in Turkistan, Russia, and Europe but either they were unknown to the world or they could hardly be called humans and they possessed no enviable qualities.


    Al the well-known countries had at one time attained progress and development and achieved distinction in the sphere of civilization, society, ethics and science. Every country tasted defeat and victory. No language of any country of the world had achieved such perfection as Arabic, which had surpassed other languages in the power of expression. Had the Prophet (s) been sent to other nations, the task of redressing the civilization, character, and spiritual values could not have been accomplished and all his endeavors would be lost in the ancient customs and traditions of the country. The people of Arabia neither became subject of any foreign power nor captured and ruled over any other country. Thus Arab nation or every country was alike. When Islam came out, all the nations were equally strange to them. Also, any complete book of guidance is in need of a language superior to all others in power of expression, and no language was more appropriate than Arabic to bear the heavy spiritual and intellectual burden of revelation.

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    Dawn of Guidance

    Nations of Arabia were living the life of moral depravity, ignorance and deviation but with the birth of the Prophet (s) the Arabian tribes began showing signs of noble sentiments and the dislike of evil. The King of Abyssinia had captured Yemen for a short period of time and had Abrahah Ashram as the ruler of that area. Abrahah Ashram built a temple in Yemen and tried to persuade the Arabs to do their Hajj at that temple. Not only did the Arabs refused but one person also went and defecated in the temple to disgrace him. He in return invaded Makkah with the intention to destroy the Kaba. He came with an army using elephants and became to be known as the people of the elephants. He captured about 200 camels of Abdul-Muttalib gazing out side of Makkah. Quraish talked to their chief Abdul-Muttalib to go talk to Abrahah to avert the battle. Abdult-Muttalib went and was well received by the governor because of his status among the Quraish but the governor was disappointed when Abdul-Muttalib asked for his animals back rather than talk about safety of the Kabah. He said that he was the owner of the livestock and is requesting what is his and Kaba is the house of Allah and Allah will protect His house. Abrahah gave back the livestock and let him go and then attack Makkah. The Arabs made dua to Allah to protect His house and went up in the mountains to hide. Allah sent giant birds carrying stones in their mouths and rained stones down on the army of Abrahah and defeated it.

    Sacrifice of Abdullah bin Abdul-Muttalib

    At the time of leaving Makkah, the Jurhum tribe covered up the well of Zamzam with dust and so for a long time it became traceless. One day Abdul-Muttalib saw in his dream the location of the well and started digging. Since the location was near the two idols Isaf and Nailah, the Quraish resented the disturbance. Seeing that they were only two, father and son, Abdul-Muttalib made dua to Allah to bless him with ten sons and he would sacrifice one of his sons to Him. After digging some time the well of Zamzam appeared, establishing the prestige of Abdul-Muttalib over the Quraish and all of them acknowledged his leadership and virtues.

    When his sons had grown up, he chose to sacrifice one of his sons. He went to Kaba along with all his sons and drew lots before Hubal. By chance of arrows, his youngest son the dearest to him was chosen. The Quraish tried to stop him but could not and so they sought the advice of a famous soothsayer. She said blood money for Abdul-Muttalib’s clan was 10 camels and so 10 camels should be put on one side and the son on one side and lots be drawn. If camels’ side was chosen then sacrifice the camels if the son’s side was chosen then add 10 more camels to the camel side and draw again and continue till the camel side was chosen. The lots were going in favor of the son till the 10th time when it was the camels. So 100 camels were sacrificed as blood money and that also became the new standard for blood money.

    Progeny of Abdul-Muttalib, pp 90

    Father of Muhammad (s)

    A few days before the year of the Elephant, Abdul-Muttalib married his son Abdullah to Aminah bint Wahb belonging to a noble family of the Quraish in Al Madinah, and he himself married Halah bin Wuhaib, one of the relatives of Aminah. Hamza was born from this marriage. Abdul-Muttalib sent Abdullah to Syria with a trade caravan, on the way back he got sick and stayed in Madinah. Abdul-Muttalib sent his son Harith to get Abdullah so he can be cared for in Makkah but by the time Harith got there, Abdullah had already passed away and was buried. Prophet Muhammad was still in the womb of his mother. He was born 52 or 55 days after the eve of the year of the Elephant.

    Family of Prophet from Mother’s side, pp 90

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    Childhood Days

    Initially Thuwaibah, freed slave-girl of Abu Lahab bin Abdul-Muttalib suckled him for seven days, she also suckled Hamza the uncle of Prophet (s). Thus Masruh binn Thuwaibah and Hamzah (r.a) were his foster brothers. On the 8th day he was entrusted to lady Halimah of the Banu Sa’d clan of the Hawazin tribe. It was the custom of the Arabs to give their babies to the Bedouins to raise in the desert where they would grow up strong and healthy, and also learn eloquent speech since the Bedouins spoke the best Arabic.

    He was suckled for 2 years and remained with Halima for 4 years. His mother summoned him after 4 years and took him to his relatives in Madinah, but on the return journey after a month she passed away. Abdul-Muttalib took it upon himself to look after his grandson. He (s) was five years old and out gazing goats with his foster brother and sister and other boys when the opening of the chest event occurred. Imam Muslim reports from Anas bin Malik (r.a.) that one day when he (s) was play with boys of Makkah, Jibril (Gabriel) (a.s) came to him, split open his chest, took out a black drop from it and said: “It was the portion of Satan.” Following that he washed his heart in a tray of gold with Zamzam water and then put it in its place.

    Death of Abdul-Muttalib

    Prophet (s) was 8 years old and had been in the care of his grandfather for 2 years when Abdul-Muttalib passed away. He was wise enough to leave instructions to his son Abu Talib to look after the boy afterwards. It was a wise choice because Abu Talib and Abdullah (father of the Prophet) were from the same mother. Abu Talib took special care of his nephew and held him dearer than his own sons.

    First Journey to Syria

    The Prophet (s) was 12 years old when Abu Talib took him to Syria with the caravan. When the caravan reached Busra, the southeast part of Syria, a Christian monk named Bahira saw and recognized him as he Last Prophet. He came to Abu Talib and let him that this nephew was set to become a Prophet as he had noticed with him all the signs of Prophethood written in the Torah and the Gospel. He then advised Abu Talib to hurry back with his nephew lest others notice it too and come to harm him.

    Harb Al-Fijar, First Participation in Battle

    A fair was held at Ukaz regularly, it would organize a number of programs including horse racing, wrestling, and demonstrations of the art of combat and poetic competitions. All the tribes of Arabia were belligerent by nature and drew swords at slightest incident. Once the Hawazin and Quraish tribes challenged each other and this led to what became as the Harb Al-Fijar war because it took place in the month of Dhul-Qa’dah when fighting was forbidden.


    Prophet Muhammad (s) chose trade as his vocation and accompanied many trade caravans returning each time with substantial profit. During these journeys, people had ample opportunity to observe the Prophet and his qualities of honest dealings, manners and behavior.

    Khadijah (r.a.) bint Khuwailid, a noble lady of Banu Asad, was a wealthy woman of Quraish. She was a widow after marrying two men, her second husband left behind much wealth for her. After hearing the honest dealings of the Prophet (s), she hired him to take her merchandise to Syria for trade. Her slave Maisarah and a relatives of hers name Khuzaimah bin Hakim accompanied him. He (s) headed the trade caravans of Khadijah (r.a) to Bahrain, Yemen, and Syria and returned with a profit every time. He virtues, uprightness, honest and trustworthiness gain such a wide fame that they called him As-Sadiq (the Truthful) or Al-Amin (the Trusty) instead of calling him by his name.

    His honesty, trustworthiness, graceful character, piety, nobility, and high quality were no longer a secrete from Khadijah (r.a). Although many noble men wanted to marry her, she through a woman, either Nafisah or Atikah bint Abdul-Muttalib, sent a proposal to the Prophet (s) for marriage. After consultation with Abu Talib, the Prophet (s) accepted the proposal. The prophet (s) was 25 years old and Khadijah (r.a) was 40. She gave birth to 3 sons and 4 daughters.

    Renewal of Hilf-ul-Fudal

    A long time ago some Arabs had pledged together to help the oppressed and fight against the oppressors. Almost all those who entered into the agreement had the word Fadl attached to their name and so their pledge came be known as Hilf-ul-Fudul. After the Harb Al-Fija, Zubair bin Abdul-Muttalib, an uncle of the Prophet (s), felt the need of reviving the movement. A few people assembled at the house of Abdullah bin Jad’an and pledged afresh to combat the oppressors and help the oppressed. The Prophet (s) also joined in that pledge. Prophet (S) brought many chieftains and distinguished people to join in as one man to redeem Arab society from evils like oppression, highway robbery, excess perpetrated on the weak and the poor. An organization was formed with Banu Hashim, Banu Al-Muttalib, Banu Asad, Banu Zuhrah, and Banu Tamim as members. Every member pledged:

    1. We shall wipe out disorder from the country
    2. Safeguard the travelers and wayfarers
    3. Help the poor
    4. Check the tyrants from doing wrong

    The Prophet (s) would say: “If I were invited to have a hand in it even after the advent of Islam, I would have undoubtedly joined again.”

    Appointed as Arbitrator by the Quraish

    The Ka’bah caught fire once due to some carelessness. The Quraish agreed to rebuild it but none was ready to demolish it for fear of some calamity befalling them. Walid bin Mughirah from among the chieftains started it and soon other tribes followed. A ship had suffered wreckage at Jeddah port around this time and so that wood to us as well. When construction was near completion and the placing of the Hajar Aswad (Black Stone) was left, a dispute broke out about who should put it there. This continued for 5 days until Abu Umayyah bin Mughirah suggest that first man to enter the gate of Ka’bah would be the arbitrator to decide.

    The first man to appear was the Prophet (s), seeing this they all said “This is Muhammad, He is trustworthy and we all agree to his decision.” Every tribe wanted the honor of putting that last piece in place and everyone had profound faith in the honesty and justice of the Prophet (s). The prophet (s) asked them to bring a cloth and he placed the Hajar Aswad on it and had the chieftain of each tribe hold a corner of it and carry it to the Ka’ba and the Prophet (s) took it from the cloth with and placed it in place with his own hands. The prophet (s) was 35 years old at that time.

    The Prophet (s) excelled all others in Makkah with respect to honor and popularity. His wisdom, uprightness, honesty, and trustworthiness was well known throughout Arabia. He was a trader by profession and happy married to Khadijah (r.a). Once famine broke out, Abu Talib had to shoulder responsibility of a big family and despite being a a chieftain of Banu Hashim, he passed his days in poverty and want. Seeing this the Prophet (s) told his uncle Abbas bin Abdul Muttalib about the situation and suggest that they each take one of his sons under their care. Abbas agreed and talked to Abu Talib to get his consent. Abu Talib gave his consent for Ali and Ja’far, thus Ali was taken by the Prophet (s) and Ja’far by Abbas.

    His Love of Zaid bin Harithah

    Hakim bin Haram, the nephew of Khadijah (r.a) had purchased a slave and offered him to her, who gave him to the Prophet (s). This slave was known as Zaid bin Harithah. He belonged to an Arbian family but was captured during plunder and sold as a slave. His father and uncle came to Makkah to request the Prophet (s) to release him. The prophet (s) said Zaid was at liberty to accompany them if he so desired. They asked him to return and he stated that he wanted to stay with the Prophet (s). His father rebuked him stating if he preferred slavery to liberty, to which he replied that he had noticed in Muhammad (s) such things that he prefer none to him in the whole world. Hearing this prophet (s) got up and took Zaid with him to Makkah and announced that from this said Zaid was free and was adopted by him as his son. Seeing this father and uncle of Zaid went back delighted with the outcome.

    From that day the boy was called Zaid bin Muhammad instead of Zaid bin Harithah until Revelations was sent to the Prophet (s) after his emigration that an adopted son cannot take the place of one’s own son.

    Inclined to Allah

    The Prophet (s) was 32 or 33 years old when developed in him a love for solitude and privacy. He naturally abhorred polytheism. Once during a meeting, the pagans served him some food which they had already dedicated to the idols. He (s) put it aside towards Zaid bin Amr. But he also refused to eat from it and said addressing the pagans: “We do not eat from the food that was offered to idols.” This Zaid bin Amr bin Nufail was the uncle of Umar bin Khattab (r.a).

    The more the prophet (s) was drawing closer to age 40, the more he felt attracted to privacy. He would often go to pray for days at the Cave of Hira (now known as Jabal Nur or Mountain of Light). He (s) did this for 7 years and during the last 6 months he frequently had true dreams.

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    Prophet Muhammad (s) was 40 years old when Prophethood was presented to him by Arch Angel Jibril (Gabriel) in the Cave of Hira on one of this stays there, praying and reflecting in solitude. The whole event was very overwhelming and he hurried home and said to his wife Khadijah (r.a): “wrap me, wrap me up,” and after he had calmed down he related incident to her stating that he feels his life is threatened. Khadijah (r.a) replied back say, “By no means, I swear to Allah that He would never put you to shame. You join ties of relationship, you speak the truth, you bear people’s burdens, you help the destitute, you entertain guest and you mitigate the pains and grief suffered for the sake of truth.”

    Afterwards, she took him to her cousin Waraqah bin Naufal, who had grown old by then. After hearing the story of Muhammad (s), he cried out saying, “there has come onto the same Namus, who had come unto Prophet Moses aforetime. Had I been young and living by the time when your people will cast you out.” The prophet (s) inquired that they would cast him out? And Waraqah replied ‘Yes’, for whenever a Messenger of Allah came and preached Tauhid (Oneness of Allah) he was maltreated and put to untold miseries.

    No revelations came for sometime after that. Then one day the Prophet (s) was on his way home from the Cave of Hira when he saw the same angel and got frightened. He hurried back home and wrapped himself up, but then he heard a majestic voice saying: “O you wrapped up in garments, Arise and warn; And magnify your Lord; And purify your garments; And keep away from abomination, polytheism and evils.” (Quran 74:1-5)

    When Prophet Muhammad (s) started preaching Islam, his wife Khadijah (r.a), his cousin Ali bin Abu Talib (r.a), Zaid bin Harithah (r.a) and his friend Abu Bakr bin Abu Quhafah (r.a) accepted Islam the same day. He slowly started preaching to family and close friends. The believers would go pass Makkah in the mountains to pray to Allah fo fear of their lives. Three years passed silently and secretly preaching Islam, and people came renouncing the abominable life of polytheism and idolatry.

    The Quraish initially didn’t pay any attention to the movement of Islam as it didn’t look menacing in its early stage. Most of them did nothing more than poking fun at the believers and hurting them verbally. Once Prophet Muhammad (s) and Ali (r.a) were performing prayers in the mountains and Abu Talib stopped there by chance. He silently watched them till their finished and then inquired about the new religion they adopted. They said it is the religion of Ibrahim and invited him to accept it. He said he would not renounce the religion of his ancestors by then said to Ali (r.a), “My son! Never part company with Muhammad. I am sure he will lead you to nothing but good.”

    Finally claim the revelation: “Therefore proclaim openly that which you are commanded.” (Quran 15:94). The prophet (s) got on Mount Safa and called everyone to him, calling them by their tribe names. Once all gathered, he invited them to Islam but no one showed interest. Adultery, gambling, lying, embezzlement, theft, and robbery were made taboo. The small and weak band of people had to bear the brunt of their new faith. Quraish were proud people and it was not easy for them to put up with derogatory remarks against their ancestors’ faith and practices. They were very particular about the distinction between slaves and their masters. But Islam believed in the equality of both of them. Open preaching ignited the fire of hostility and antagonism all over Arabia, making it worst in the 4th year of Prophethood.

    Prophet Muhammad (s) set up the house of Arqam bin Abu Arqam at the bottom of the Mount of Safa as an education institution. All new converts went there to learn about Islam and prayer. The last to embrace Islam in there was Umar bin Khattab (r.a). Among the converts where slaves and some who had no powerful tribes or relatives to defend them and so they would become easy victim of the disbelievers. They also slowly started mistreating the Prophet of Islam, they used to throw stones, filth and refuse at his house.

    After consultations among themselves, the Quraish decided to make a deal with Prophet Muhammad (s). They said, if you want to have wealth, we will collect enough of it that you will be the richest of all of us. If you desire to be a leader, we will make you our chief and are ready to accept your rule. If you want to marry someone, we shall arrange your marriage with the most beautiful lady of the highest and most respectable family and if you are eager for these simultaneously, we can provide you with all this; And if you are possessed than we will hire the best magicians in Arabia and have you cured. The prophet (s) began to recite Surah As-Sajdah in response to this and when he came to: “But if they turn away, then say: ‘I have warned you of a destructive torment like the torment which overtook Ad and Thamud.”(41:13)The messenger Utbah bin Rabi’ah put his hand on the mouth of the Prophet (s) requesting him not to say such things. He then returned to Quraish and told them best to leave him alone but they did not listen.

    They approached Abu Talib (father of Ali, cousin of the Prophet) to control his nephew and Abu Talib tried to advise the Prophet but the Prophet said that if the put the sun in his right hand and moon in left then he still would not stop. Abu Talib told him to continue with his mission than and he has full support of his uncle.

    Migration to Abyssinia

    When all else failed, the Quraish turned more hostile. They would call the believers by bad names, limit their movements, and persecute the weak and poor more severely. Witnessing this oppression of the believers, the Prophet (s) allowed them to leave for Abyssinia, where the Christians ruled. In the month of Rajab, 5th of Prophethood, a band of 11 men and 2 women left Makkah for Abyssinia. Uthman bin Affan, his wife Ruqayyah (the daughter of the Prophet (s)), Abdullah bin Mas’ud, Zubair bin Al-awwam and few others were from among the renowned and powerful tribes, showing that even they were not safe from the Quraish.

    When the disbelievers noticed Makkans after converting are going to Abyssinia and living there in peace, they sent a delegation to the Negus, King of Abyssinia with costly gifts for the king and his courtiers. The king promised to listen to both side of the stories and make a decision. On behalf of the Muslims, Ja’far bin Abu Talib (r.a), stepped forward to explain the truth. The king listened silently and then asked if he had something brought by his Prophet (s) from God. Ja’far recited the verses of Surah Maryam, which brought tears to the eyes of the king and his courtiers. The king returned the costly gifts and denied giving up the Muslims to the delegation, returning them back empty handed and humiliated.

    The Quraish grew mad with enmity. Once Abu Jahl passed by Mount Safa and he insulted the Prophet (s) and hit him with a stone which caused the Prophet (s) to bleed. The Prophet (s) silently listened to everything and then went home quietly without saying anything to his uncle. Hamzah bin Abdul-Muttalib was also an uncle of the Prophet (s) and also his foster brother through breastfeeding. He was a strong warrior who would go hunting in the wild and come home in the evening. On his way home, the slave woman of Abdullah bin Jad’an told him what happened with the Prophet (s). He went to Abu Jahl and struck him on the head, causing him to bleed, and saying, “would you dare to insult and abuse him if I followed his religion and say what he says”. When he turned to the Prophet (s) with news of what he did, the Prophet (s) said he was not pleased with that but would rather be pleased if he accepted Islam. Hamzah accepted Islam that day on the 6th year of Prophethood. With his conversion the Quraish had to be more cautious with dealing with the Prophet (s).

    Umar bin Khattab was also a strong person among the Quraish who did not like Muslims. He was well known for his temper and feared by everyone. One time we went to kill the Prophet (s) and was stopped in the path by Sa’d bin Abu Waqqs who inquired about his destination and told him to take care of his house first since his own sister and her husband had converted to Islam. He went home and slapped her making her bleed, she in return stood up and challenged him saying “Umar; We have become Muslims and have been obeying Muhammad (s), so do whatever you want.” Seeing this and having his anger reside, Umar asked his sister to show him what she was reading. Upon hearing the Quran, he went to the Prophet (s) at Aqram’s house and became a Muslim there. He suggested Muslims should pray in the open publically and fought back anyone who stood against it. This took place at end of the last month of 6th year of Prophethood. Umar bin Khattab (r.a) was 33 years old and with his conversion, number of Muslims in Makkah reached 40.

    Social Boycott

    Being hopeless against the believers’ openly praying and a large number of converts living peacefully in Abyssinia, the Quraish decided to impose a complete social and material boycott on Banu Hashim and Banu Abdul-Muttalib, who lending their full support to the Prophet (s) and his cause. They demanded to hand over Muhammad (s) or the boycott will remain in force. They put their agreements in writing with the initials of all the notables of Quraish and hung it on the Ka’bah to give added strength. Except for Abu Lahab of Banu Hashim, all the Muslims and non-Muslims of the tribes of Banu Hashim and Banu Abdul-Muttalib deserted their homes and went into the hills of Makkah to stay there. The boycott was for 3 years with untold suffering upon them. The 3 year exile proved that the sense of honor of the tribes and considerations for race and lineage had substantial value and importance. The exile was also a blessing in disguise. The believers grew closer to the Prophet (s) and even the disbelievers had real chance of observing the life and activities, conduct and character of one who had nothing but the message of truth, love and righteousness.

    Zuhair bin Abu Umayyah bin Mughirah was first assess the gravity of the suffering because Abu Talib was his maternal uncle. He slowly drew attention of others one by one in favor of abrogating the agreement. In the meantime, Prophet (s) told Abu Talib that Allah informed him that the document bearing the agreement had been eaten by the termites except the word “Allah” where ever it was mentioned. Hearing this Abu Talib came out of the pass and informed the Quraish of what he heard. He then asked him to see the document and in case it was destroyed then boycott should be called off. Disbelievers were astonished to see it being eaten away by termites.

    Year of Sorrow

    This is the 10th year of Prophethood.
    Abu Talib fell ill and died at age of 80 in Rajab. He provided protection to his nephew, the Prophet (s), from Quraish all this time.
    Two months later Khadijah (r.a), the wife of the Prophet, passed away.

    The Journey to Tai’if

    Tai’if is 60 miles from Makkah and was as big as Makkah. It was inhabited by Banu Thaqif who worshipped Lat. In month of shawwal, after one month of the death of Khadijah (r.a), the Prophet (s) took Zaid bin Harithah and left for Tai’if on foot. On the way there, he (s) invited Banu Bakr tribe and Qahtan people but they behaved like the Makkans. In Tai’if, he (s) met the chieftains, Abd yalil bin Amr bin Umair and his brothers, Mas’ud and Habib. They rejected his invitation to Islam and rather than keeping this matter quite as the Prophet (s) requested, they stirred up their slaves and some rebels of the town to harass him. The Prophet (s) left from there with his shins bleeding from the shower of the rocks from people of Tai’if. Allah sent the Angels of the mountain to destroy the city of Tai’if if the Prophet (s) wished but he told them no saying he is sent as a mercy to mankind and if they don’t accept then their progeny may.

    Also, in Shawwal the Prophet (s) married Saudah bint Zam’ah (r.a) and Aisha bint Abut Bakr (r.a), and was honored with the Mi’raj, the Night Journey and his Ascension to the heavens.

    Preaching Islam in Different Places and Tribes

    The prophet (s) invited Banu Kindah, Banu Abdullah, Banu Amir, Banu Shaiban, Banu Kalb, Banu Muharib, Fazarah, Ghassan, Sulaim, Abs, Harith, Adhrah, Dhuhl, and Murrah tribes to Islam.

    Suwaid bin Samit – from tribe of Aus from Al Madinah accepted Islam. He went back to Al-Madinah and was killed in a battle between Aus and Khazraj tribes.

    Iyas bin Mu’adh – a young man that came with a delegation of Anas bin Rafi from the tribe of Banu Abdul-Ashhal to Makkah to make agreements with Quraish against the khazaj. Prophet (s) went to them to tell about Islam, Iyas stood up upon hearing the message and called his people to follow it. Anas bin Rafi silenced him and said they did not come here for this. The Prophet (s) left silently. A few days later, after reaching Al-Madina, Iyas bin Mu’adh passed away declaring his faith in Islam.

    Dimad Azdi – a noted sorcerer of Yemen came to Makkah and hear about the Prophet (s) from the Quraish and went to meet him to cure him. Prophet (s) said listen to my recitation first than I’ll listen to yours, upon hearing the Quran he embraced Islam.

    Tufail bin Amr Dausi -was a chief of Daus tribe of Yemen, a great poet and intellectual. When he came to Makkah the Makkahs gave him great honor but also warned against the Prophet (s), calling him a sorcerer and evil person. Tufail went to Kaba with his ears stuffed with cotton but seeing the Prophet (s) offer Fajr prayer got him curious and he said to himself that he is a great poet and he will listen to what is being said and reject it if it is bad and accept it if it is good. On this went to the Prophet (s) and asked him to recite some stuff, he than embraced Islam and requested a dua to invite his whole tribe to Islam through him. He also invited the Prophet (s) to Yemen, away from the Makkans and their oppression.

    Abu Dhar Ghifari – he belonged to the Banu Ghifar tribe and lived in suburbs of Al-Madinah. News of the Prophet (s) reached him through Suwaid bin Samit and Iyas bin Mu’adh and so he sent his brother to Makkah to inquire. Being not satisfied with the answer he went himself and met the Prophet (s) and embraced Islam. He announced his Islam loudly at the Kabah till Quraish started beating him and Abu Talib came to his rescue and told others that he was from the Ghifar tribe, the place from where all your caravans passed. They let him go quickly. This happened several times and then later on he went back to Al-Madinah.

    Six Fortunate Souls of Madinah

    In the last month of 11th year of Prophethood the bloody battle between Aus and Khazraj of Al-Madinah came to an end. The entire city of Madinah was divided between the Jews and the idolaters. It was Hajj season and prophet (s) was trying to invite visitors to Islam. He saw a small group up and taking one night and approached them. These six were from khazraj and they all embraced Islam after hearing it and promised to teach Islam among their people. The Aus and Khazraj were two well known and mighty tribes of idolaters who continually heard from the Jews about the rising of a grand Prophet in the near future and his dominance over all others. Since they heard all this before, the six wasted no time in accepting Islam.

    The Prophet (s) waited whole 12th year of Prophethood looking for any news of the six that embraced Islam during last year’s Hajj. He went to the same place he met the six people during the last Hajj season and found them there with some new faces belonging to both the Aus and the Khazraj. There were 12 in total that came and pledged their allegiance to Islam. This is known as the first pledge of Aqabah.

    When returning back they asked the Prophet (s) to send someone with them to teach others about Islam. Mus’ab bin Umair (r.a) was chosen for this important mission. Tribe after tribe was coming to Islam at the hands of Mus’ab bin Umair (r.a) and Islam kept spreading among the tribes and clans of Al-Madinah. At the same time the oppression and torture by the Quraish was crossing all limits in Makkah. In the 13th year of Prophethood, Mus’ab in Umair (r.a) set out for Makkah with a caravan of 72 men and 2 women with the purpose of seeing the Prophet (s) and inviting him to Al-Madinah.

    There were believers and disbelievers in the caravan group. The disbelievers were unaware of what is going on. Out of the believers, 12 were chieftains, nine belonging to Khazraj tribe and three to Aus. When they expressed their desire for the Prophet (s) to go with them, Abbas rose and told them that Muhammad was at protection of his family in Makkah and take him with you if you are ready for series of bloody battles. They then requested the Prophet (s) to say something and he recited some verses of the Quran. Hearing this they said we are prepared for whatever may come. Abdul-Haitham bin Taihan (r.a) asked the Prophet (s) to promise to not leave them in Madina and come back. He (s) said, “I shall live and die with you.” Than Abdullah bin Rawahah (r.a) asked what will they get in return and the Prophet (s) said Heaven and the pleasure of Allah. Abdul-Haitham bin Taihan said, “Now the bargain has been settled. There will be no going back on both sides.” Everybody than gave their pledge to the Prophet (s) and this became as the second pledge of Aqabah. The prophet (s) told the 12 chieftains, “Like the partisans of Jesus (a.s), I assign you the responsibilities of educating your people and I hold responsibility for you all.”

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    The prophet (s) gave a general order for migration to the Muslims due the severe treatment and hostility of the Makkans. Around this time verses were also revealed giving permission to fight those who have wronged you. Slowly Muslims started migrating few at a time to Madinah. Now that the Muslims were leaving, the Quraish didn’t like that either and so they tried preventing whoever they could from going. When most of the Muslims had migrated, the Quraish turned their attention to the Prophet (s) to target him while he is still here and among the few that can protect him. They plotted to kill and came up with the plan to have one youth from each tribe to attack and kill him and then just pay the blood money since the other side won’t be strong enough take on all the tribes involved. The Prophet (s) had his cousin Ali (r.a) sleep in his place while he and Abu Bakr (r.a) escaped at night to make their migration. The youths had surrounded the house whole night waiting for the Prophet (s) to come out and when they saw Ali (r.a) get out of this bed at dawn time, they quickly went to him to inquire where is Muhammad but it was already too late. There was a manhunt and chase after the Prophet (s) and Abu Bakr (r.a) but they were unable to get them. This was also the time when the Prophet (s) and Abu Bakr (r.a) hid in the cave and they could not be seen even when the pagans were standing right in front of the entrance.

    The Prophet (s) entered Quba on Monday and stayed there till Friday. First Friday prayer and sermon was given here with about 100 men. Masjid Quba was built at this location later on.

    Year 1 of Migration

    The construction of Prophet’s Mosque and his house started this year.
    Islamic brotherhood was established among the Ansar and the migration Muhajirin.
    First political document was created detailing:
    · In case of an attack on Al-Madinah by outsiders, people of Madinah all toghether would raise arms together to defend it
    · Jews of Madinah would provide neither refuge to Quraish of Makkah nor their allies
    · None of the citizens of Madinah would put hurdles in the way of anyone else’s religion, life or property
    · If two people have issue they can’t resolve than they would have to abide by the Prophet (s)’s decision
    · Burden of war expenditures would be shared by all equally
    · Muslims of Madinah would be considered friends of the Jews, Jews also would have to treat as friends those tribes and clans who have alliance with Muslims
    · All fighting and bloodshed would be prohibited in Madinah and all were bound to help the oppressed

    Hypocrisy appeared with Abdullah bin Ubai bin Salul who was planning to rule Madinah as the chief of both Aus and Khazraj tribes attempting to take an advantage of their weakness due lost of much power because of their war with each other. The coming of Muslims to Madinah and becoming its rulers ruined Abdullah’s plans and so he sided with the pagan Makkans and tried to help them.

    Muslims began to use Adhan to call for prayer.

    Abdullah bin Salam (r.a), a great scholar of the Jews, accepted Islam.

    Slam Al Farsi the Persian accepted Islam after accepting Christianity before and going through Jews and Christians scriptures.

    Payment of Zakat was made obligatory.

    Year 2 of Migration

    In Sha’ban, the Qiblah (direction of Prayer) was changed for Muslims to Makkah and fasting of Ramadan was made obligatory.

    Battle of Badr

    · Muslims had 310-313 combatants, 2 horses, and 70 camels
    · Makkah hard a large army with 700 camels, 300 horses and armed to the teeth
    · Allah sent best of His arm of angels to help the Muslims, seeing these angels in the battle field made the shayateen run away that were helping the Makkans
    · The Makkans lost and one of worst enemies of Islam, Abu Jahl, was beheaded. Abu Lahab in Makkah was so shocked that he died after a week
    · The prisoners were freed on ransom from their families, those who could not afford it were set free anyways and those who could not afford but could read and write could earn their freedom after teaching 10 children to read and write
    · In accordance with Arabian practice, prisoners of war would be mercilessly killed but Makkans were amazed to see that among the captives only 2 were killed for their crimes and mischief
    · Sadaqa Fitr was made obligatory, Eid prayers and sacrifice of an animal was enjoined
    · Prophet (s) daughter Umm Kulthum (r.a) was married to Uthman bin Affan (r.a) and Fatimah (r.a) to Ali bin Abu Talib (r.a)

    Year 3 of Migration

    Abdullah bin Ubai bin Salul that was about to become king was so awed by the Badr victory that he became a Muslim but he still was hostile to Muslims. He instructed other non-Muslims to become Muslims and he became their leader. These people came to be known as the Munafiqin (hypocrites). Some Jews joined them as well to benefit from it.

    Hostile Jews:

    Jews were plotting with Abdullah bin Ubai and the Makkans against the Muslims. Jewish tribes were wealthy and practice usury, the Aus and Kharzaj tribes were indebted to them and financially under their control. The Prophet (s) was most patience with them despite their breaking the covenant and rude treatments.

    They had three strong tribes on outskirts of Madinah with their separate fortifications. They were Banu Qainuqa, Banu Nadir and Banu Quraizah. Once a fair was held in the settlement of Banu Qainuqa and a woman of the Ansar went there to sell milk and buy some other stuff. She was molested by a Jew when she went to a goldsmith’s shop to buy an ornament. Another Ansar came to her rescue and he was murdered. Other Muslims that went there were also attacked and when the Prophet (s) went there with few companions, they found the Jews armed and ready to fight. Muslim laid siege to the fort and took it over, taking 700 as captives. They were expecting death but were released by the mercy of the Prophet (s) after Abdullah bin Ubai persistently appealed for them, thus making his positions strong among the Jews.

    Battle of Uhud

    · Army of 3000 warriors marched to Madinah to take revenge for Badr
    · Prophet (s) marched with 1000 soldiers to Mount Uhud, leaving behind Umm Makthum (r.a) in Al-Madinah. Abdullah bin Ubai took 300 of his followers back under the excuse he’s option of fighting from the city was ignored, leaving 700 Muslims to face 3000 Makkans.
    · Hamzah bin Abdul-Muttalib, the uncle of the Prophet (s), was martyred
    · The Makkans were being defeated and running tail, seeing this the 50 Muslim archers positioned on a nearby hill ran down to join the Muslims in the booty despite being ordered not to come down now matter what. Seeing this weak opening, Khalid bin Walid stormed in and attacked the Muslims. Muslims panicked and were chaos was all over the place then Prophet (s) called them all to come to him as the enemies started focusing their attack on him. The Muslims regrouped by the Prophet (s)’s side and the re-launched the attack and were victorious.
    · Muslims martyred were 65 Ansar and 4 Muhajirin

    Year 4 of Migration

    Mischief-makers would try to harm Muslims anyway they could. They would request the Prophet (s) to send some emissaries to teach them about Islam and then they would kill those Muslims in an ambush. In one incident, Prophet (s) sent 70 companions who were given protection too but they were all slaughtered safe 1 that was freed as a slave by Amir bin At-Tufail since his mother had vowed to free one slave. On the way back to Madinah, Amr bin Ummayyah Damr (r.a) killed two men, mistaking them to be the enemy. Prophet (s) went to Banu nadir to consult about the bloody money and they showed interest in giving their share of it. They seated the Prophet (s) in the shade of the wall of their fortification and left pretending to collect the money from the people. Allah informed the Prophet (s) of their intent to throw a rock from above and kill him. The prophet (s) immediately got up and left and the Jews tried to call him back but he rejected telling them their intentions and how they had planned to kill him, to which no one denied.

    Prophet (s) wrote to them to finalize another agreement but they refused, and he wrote again to sign it or leave the territory. The Jews agreed to nothing and got ready to fight. After they were seized they conveyed to the Prophet (s) through Abdullah bin Umbai that they were ready to accept banishment provided they were given safety of life. They loaded their camels, destroyed their dwellings and left. One section went to Khabiar and another to Syria.

    Husain bin Ali bin Abu Talib (r.a) was born this year
    Whine was declared as prohibited
    Abdullah bin Uthamn bin Affan (r.a), maternal grandson of the Prophet (s), Zainab bint Khuzaimah and Fatimah bint Usaid, mother of Ali bin Abu Talib, passed away
    Prophet (s) married Umm Salamah (r.a) after the death of her husband, Abu Salamh Makhzumi

    Year 5 of Migration

    In Awwal 5 AH, Ukaider, Christian ruler of Dumat-ul-Jandal, collected a massive army to invade al-Madinah but ran off in terror when Muslim army showed up at their base in a surprise move.

    In Shaban 5 AH, chief of Banu Al-Mustaliq, Harith bin Abu Dirar, planned to overthrow Islam and Muslims and brought many tribes on his side. As per Islamic way, they were given invitation to join Islam but they refused and the battle started and Muslims came out as the victors. Aisha (r.a) also went to observe all this and was left behind during one of their rest stops as she was away answering call of nature and no one noticed. Safwan bin Mu’attal (r.a) was in charge of following behind the army to look after the gear and as a rear guard. Upon seeing Aisha (r.a), he lowered his camel so she could get on it and brought her from safely. The hypocrites chose this opportunity to accuse of infidelity but then verses were revealed by Allah in her defense, vindicating here completely.

    Juwairiyah, daughter of Harith, chief of Ban Al-Mustaliq from among the captives was given to Thabit bin Quais (r.a). Harith came himself to free his daughter, prophet (s) paid for her release but she refused to go back with her father and showed eagerness to be of service to the Prophet (s), and so he (s) married her with the consent of her father. This marriage made all the captives of Banu Al-Mustaliq related to the Prophet (s) and such all the Companions freed them and returned the spoils of the war.

    Battle of Trench

    The banished Jewish Banu Nadir tribe chieftains went around rallying as many allies as they could from among the Jews, Christians and pagans and evening with Banu Quraizah of Al-Madinah, the Jewish tribe that was still bound to help Muslims according to the pact they signed. They set out with total force of 10-24000 soldiers with 4500 camels and 300 horses. As the suggestion of Salman Al-Farsi (r.a) a trench was dug around one side of Madinah as other three sides were already protected by rugged mountains. The Muslims fought the polytheists and did their best to not let the enemies cross the trench and enter the city. At the same time Prophet (s) was aware of the traitorous act of Banu Quraizah and the threat they posed on the Muslim women and children taking refuge in the citadel. One day Nu’ain bin Mas’ud from Ghatfan tribe came to Prophet (s) and accepted Islam and then set out on secrete mission to set discord among the allies of the enemies as no one knew he converted. Because of this mission Banu Quraizah held back from lending any support to the Quraish. After 27 days of siege, Allah also sent a violent windstorm that blew their tents and cooking pots away, having them too fled being overpowered with fear and frustration.

    Banu Quraizah’s Breach of Trust

    The Muslims seized the fort of Banu Quraizah for their treachery until they decided to surrender on the condition Sa’d bin Mu’adh (r.a) be allowed to suggest their punishment. Sa’d bin Mu’adh was the chief of Aus tribe, who were allies of the Jews, and so he was summoned. Both parties, Prophet (s) and the Jews, agreed to his decision no matter what. He ruled that all the men be put to death and women and children be taken as prisoners of war.

    Year 6 of Migration

    Banu Bakr conspired with the Jews of Khaibar to invade Al-Madinah but met with defeat at the hands of the Muslims

    Abdur-Rahman bin Auf (r.a) was sent to surrounding areas of Dumat-ul-Jandal to preach Islam. One of their chieftains, Asbagh bin Umar Kalbi, a Christian accepted islam and so did most of is tribe. Other chieftains declined to accept Islam but agreed to pay the Jizyah (a tax levied on non-Muslims to compensate their not taking part in armed defense of Muslim community while enjoying full freedom of religion, life and property)

    Truce of Hudaibiyah

    The Prophet (s) and some companions went for a Hajj but were not allowed to enter Makkah, instead they were forced to sign a Treaty and come back next year. The Treaty of Hudaibiyah had following conditions:
    · Muslims will perform Umrah next year instead of this year. While entering Makkah they will carry no arms except their swords sheathed and will stay no more than 3 days.
    · Treaty will remain valid for 10 years, and nobody from any side would lift their hands against the other.
    · Every tribe or clan of Arabia will enjoy freedom to enter into agreement with any party, but the allies will have to abide by the terms also.
    · If anyone from Quraish goes to Prophet (s) without permission from their guardian then they will be returned back to their guardian, but if anyone from those with the Prophet (s) escaped to Quraish, they are not bound to be returned.

    The 4th condition was unfavorable to the Muslims, it meant any Muslim or one who converted to Islam escaped Quraish and their torture would have to be returned back to them. Surah Al-Fath (The Victory) was revealed at this time and it was indeed a victory in disguise. Because of the peace treaty, Muslims didn’t have to constantly fight to defend themselves from annihilation thus paving the way for spread of Islam.

    Abu Basir had converted to Islam and escaped to Madinah but was retuned back to Makkah because of this treaty. He killed one of the two guards that was taking him back and chased after the other who ran into Madinah. Seeing the Prophet (s) Abu Basir said, “You have already fulfilled your duty by handing me over to the polytheists, but Allah the Almighty cause me to restore my liberty. I will now go away because you will, in fulfillment of your agreement, give me to the polytheists again.” Abu Basir (r.a) fled to the seacoast and settled at Eis. Other Muslims in Makkah who heard this also escaped and went to Abu Basir. The band grew so strong that it began to intercept the trade caravans of Makkah. Things go so bad for the Quraish that they wrote the Prophet (s) to abrogate the 4th condition of the Treaty. Abu Basir (r.a) was ill at that time and passed away there but he instructed Abu Jandal (r.a) to take everyone to Madinah now that it was safe to go there.

    Muslims that migrated to Abyssinia to escape persecution of the Quraish also came back and Negus, Christian King of Abyssinia, accepted Islam upon the invitation of the Prophet (s).

    Prophet (s) introduced the practice of racing camels and horses.

    Aisha’s mother died and Abu Hurairah (r.a) accepted Islam.

    Year 7 of Migration

    Conquest of Khaibar

    Being banished from Al-Madinah, the Jewish tribes Banu Nadir and Banu Qainuqa were staying in Khaibar. They had 3 settlements in which there were cluster of six big forts. They amassed a great army to attack Madinah in revenge. Muslims took over 4 forts in the battle and 2 obtained peace and safety by giving half of their produce from their lands and gardens. Martyred were 15 Muslims, 4 from Muhajirin and 11 from Ansar, while 39 Jews were killed.

    Zainab bint Al-Harth, the wife of a Jewish chieftain, Salam bin Mishkam served the Prophet (s) poisonous roasted goat. The Prophet (s) spit it out after being told by the bones of the meat while Bishr bin Al-Bara (r.a) ate it and died from it. She confessed to her crime and while the Prophet (s) forgave her for poisoning him, she still had to pay for killing Bishr bin Al-Bara (r.a) and handed over to these kins.

    Returning from Khaibar the Muslim army slept pass Fajr and were shown by the Prophet (s) how to make up prayer when rising late after sunrise.
    Invitation letters to Islam were sent to all the Arab and non-Arab kings. Some embraced Islam, some paid respect to the letter and some responded rudely and arrogantly
    Amr bin Al-As, Khalid bin Walid and Uthman bin Talhah accepted Islam.

    Year 8 of Migration

    Islam became the greatest power within the bounds of Arabia.
    Hypocrites of Al-Madinah, Jews of Khaibara nd the polytheists of Makkah turned to Persia and Rome to incite them against the Muslims

    Expedition of Mu’tah

    Among the letters of invitation to Islam sent to different kings, one was to ruler of Busra. Hearing who the messenger was, he lost temper and killed Harith bin Umair Azdi (r.a).
    Prophet (s) sent 3000 soldiers with Zaid bin Haritah (r.a) in command and should he fall next up would be Zaid (r.a) and then Jafar bin Abu Talib (r.a). Rome came with 100,000 soldiers to fight the Muslims. All the 3 commanders of the Muslim were martyred and the soldiers elected Khalid bin Walid (r.a) to step up and lead them. The mighty Roman army was defeated and Khalid bin Walid (r.a) received the title Saifullah (Sword of Allah) from Allah and His Messenger (s).

    Expedition of Quda’ah

    A month later people of Quda’ah collected an army near Syrian border to invade Al-Madinah but they were defeated and they scattered in fear and confusion
    Shortly after Juhainah tribe took arms to fight and raid Al-Madinah but when Muslims came to defend themselves, they fled out of terror

    Conquest of Makkah

    Banu Khuza’ah and Banu Bakr had long stand feuds but make peace after entering alliance with the Prophet (s) and because of the Treaty of Hudaibiyah. But Banu Bakr and the Quraish broke the treated and committed a massacre on the Banu Khuza’ah. Two men were sent from their tribe to the Prophet (s) seeking his help in this. Fearing the punishment the Makkans sent Abu Sufiyan to Al-Madinah quickly to renew the Treaty but he was ignored and made to look like a fool by Ali (r.a). When the Muslim army reached Makkah, Abu Sufiyan came out to talk to him at night and convert to Islam. Abbas (r.a) suggested honoring Abu Sufyan since he loves honor. So the Prophet (s) said whoever enters the Sacred Mosque will be safe, whoever enters the house of Abu Sufyan will be safe, and he who shuts his door upon himself will be safe. Makkah was conquered and the Makkahs, who persecuted and oppressed the Muslims for so long, were now the captives. Upon asking what should be done with them they said they expect nothing but good from the Prophet (s), and the Prophet (s) set them all free.

    Battle of Hunain

    Two tribes, Hawazin and Thaqif, were very hostile to Islam. Seeing Quraish defeated they rallied all the tribes they could to amass an army to attack the Muslims. Prophet (s) took 12,000 strong army to fight consisting of 10,000 Muhajirin and Ansar and 2000 new converts from Makkah. Hawazin paid a heavy toll before escaping in terror, Banu Thaqif tried to resist but then they too fled after losing many soldiers. Muslims were victorious, taking 6000 captives, 24000 camels, more than 40000 sheep and goats, and 4000 Uqiyyah (measure of weight) in silver. A deputation of the Hawazin came seeking forgiveness for the sake of Halimah Sa’diay. The Prophet (s) forgave them and returned what was his share of the boot, the Ansar and Muhajirin did the same and thus all 6000 captives were set free.

    Prophet (s)’s son Ibrahim was born to Maria Qibtiyah (Coptic), and his daughter Zainab (r.a) passed away.
    Wooden pulpit was made for the Prophet (s).

    Year 9 of Migration

    Ghassanide King arranged a huge army to avenge the defeat at Mu’tah. Heraclius of Rome sent him 40,000 troops to help and hypocrites of Madinah started building a mosque named Dirar Mosque as a center to carry out their hostile activities and anti-Islam propaganda

    Prophet (s) set out with an army of 30,000 to meet the enemy. When he got there, Heraclius recognized him as a true Prophet and withdrew out of fear. Yuhannah bin Ru’bah, ruler of Ailah, came to the Prophet (s) and offered his obedience and paid the Jizyah (tax) and people of Jarba and Adhruh did the same.

    One the way back, Prophet (s) sent Malik bin Dukhshum Salimi and Ma’n bin Adi Ajli (r.a.) to burn down and demolish the mosque build by the hypocrites. This was done as instructed in the Verse: “And as for those who put up a mosque by the way of harm…” (9:107)

    Seeing Muslims success at Tabuk, the people of Tai’if accepted Islam.
    Surah At-Taubah was revealed delineating some essential injunctions like banning the polytheists’ entry to Sacred Mosque next year, banning of naked circumambulation of the House of Allah, and fulfilling the covenant made with the Prophet.

    Hajj was declared obligatory and Abu Bakr (r.a) gave them instructions on the rites of Hajj.
    Polytheists were given 4 months to clear the vicinity of the sacred zone of the Kabah, hearing this even those in Makkah who had remained polytheists accepted Islam.

    Prophet’s daughter Umm Kulthum (r.a) passed away.
    Abdullah bin Ubai (the leader of the hypocrites) died.

    Year 10 of Migration

    This whole year deputations kept arriving from Arab tribes to join Islam, such as Azd and Jurs tribes.

    Earlier verses of Surat Al-Imran and Verse regarding Mubahalah were sent down. Mubahalah means mutal condemnation and asking Allah’s punishment to come down on the one who is false.

    Christian deputation came from Najran with their chief Abdullah Masih and bishop Abu Harithah with 24 distinguished families. When Prophet (s) asked them to accept Islam they showed rudeness. Prophet (s) challenged them to Mubahallah about Jesus (a.s) being son of Allah or not and they declined out of fear God’s punishment, so they chose to pay Jizyah instead. They also requested someone to be sent with them who could tell them about Islam, later one they accepted Islam.

    Prophet (s) performed a farewell pilgrimage and gave the farewell address.
    Prophet (s) son Ibrahim (r.a) passed away.

    Year 11 of Migration

    Prophet (s) passed away
    Abu Bakr (r.a) was elected as the Caliph

  11. #11
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    Abu Bakr Saddiq (r.a)

    His family lineage is Abdullah bin Abu Quhafah bin Amir bin Amr bin K’ab bin S’ad bin Tamim bin Murrah bin K’ab bin Luai bin ghalib bin Fihr bin Malik bin Nadr bin Kinanah. He and Prophet (s) meet at same ancestor Murrah 6 generations back. He was younger than the Prophet (s) by 2 years and 2 months. He was born and brought up in Makkah and would go on journeys with trade caravans. He migrated to Al-Madinah along with the Prophet (s).

    During the Age of Ignorance, power and nobility of the Quraish was shared by 10 clans: Hashim, Umayyah, Naufal, Abdud-dar, Asad, Taim, Makhzum, Adi, Jumh and Sahm. Abu Bak (r.a) belonged to the Banu Taim and would give judgment about blood money and penalties on behalf of Banu Taim and entire Quraish had to abide by it. He would entertain guests on a large scale, his counsel was sought in important affairs and he was well versed in the art of genealogy. He stayed away from evil and never drank alcohol in his life.

    Uthman bin Affan, Talhah bin Ubaidullah and Sa’d bin Abu Waqqas (r.a) accepted Islam under his direct influence. He was the most valor among men and most generous. The expedition of Tabuk, he gave all his wealth leaving behind Allah and His Messenger for his family. He was the most learned and wise and most knowledgeable about the Quran. He also had perfect knowledge of the Sunnah as he never left Prophet (s) side. Abu Bakr (r.a) was first to accept Islam among adults, Ali (r.a) among boys and Khadijah (r.a) among the women. He never kept wealth and goods deposited in the Bait-ul-Mal (public funds) but rather spent them on Muslims and their welfare.

    There was a congregation of Ansar in the Hall of Banu Sa’idah to choose an Amir (Chief) from the Ansar and Abu Bakr and Umar (r.a) hurried when he heard the news while he was making preparations for the burial of the Prophet (s). There were debates as to who would be the next Amir and after some time Abu Bakr (r.a) was chosen by Umar (r.a) and given the Bai’ah (oath of allegiance) followed by others. Ali, Zubair and Talhah (r.a) didn’t take Bai’ah for 40 days or according to some sources for 6 months. Their complaint was that they were not included in the counseling but they came around when things were cleared of the dire situation of that time.

    Abu Bakr (r.a) fell ill due to a fever and when it got worst he sought consultation with the Companions and nominated Umar (r.a) as the caliph of the Muslims.

    Abu Bakr (r.a)’s caliphate spanned over 2.5 years. He had following wives:

    · Qutailah bint Abdul-Uzza before converting divorced when she didn’t convert. She gave birth to Abdullah bin Abu Bakr (r.a) and Asma’ bint Abu Bakr (r.a) [the mother of Abdullah bin Zubair (r.a)]
    · Umm Ruman (r.a) before converting, gave birth to Abdur-Rahman bin Abu Bakr (r.a) and Asihah Siddiqah (r.a)
    · Asma’a bint Umais (r.a), widow of Ja’far bin Abu Talib (r.a), gave birth to Muhammad bin Abu Bakr (r.a)
    · Habibah bint Kharijah Answariyah (r.a), who belonged to Khazraj, gave birth to Umm Kulthum after his death

    Usamah’s Army

    Prophet (s) had dispatched the army lead by Suamah bin Zaid (r.a) to take on the Romans in Syria before he got ill. Abu Bakr (r.a) gave the army the order to march on. Romans were defeated.

    Trials of Apostasy

    Almost everywhere in the Arabia except Al-Madinah, Makkah and Ta’if, apostasy ran rampant, especially in regards to paying Zakat. This was especially more so with the new entrants to Islam who were easily misguided by Musailamah and Tulaihah. Musailamah and Sajah bint Al-Harith bin Suwaid of Taghlib tribe declared prophet hood for themselves.

    Abu Bakr (r.a) dispatched emissaries with eleven banners to go and try to bring back the apostates to Islam.

    Tulaihah Asadi was a soothsayer before entering Islam but claimed Prophethood during the last days of the Prophet (s). Some children of Israel joined him as did Hawazin, Ghatfan, Banu Asad, Banu Amir and Banu Tai making a large force. Khalid bin Walid (r.a) defeated them and they returned to Islam.

    Musailamah and Sajah bint Al-Harith bin Suwaid of Taghlib tribe declared Prophethood for themselves and got married and joined forces against the Muslims. Meeting the army of Khalid bin Walid (r.a) her troops fled in terror and she followed them, living rest of her life in obscurity.

    Musailamah the liar brought an army of 40,000 to fight. Many knew him as the liar and the Prophet (s) as the truthful but their national pride made them chose the liar. Khalid bin Walid (r.a) defeated them with 17000 dead from the enemies and 1000 martyred from the Muslims. He (r.a) then conquered Yamamah the next day

    Banu Abdul-Qais and Banu Bakr bin Wa’il along with their branches lived in Bahrain. People of Abdul-Qais tribe renounced Islam with the notion if the Prophet (s) was a Prophet than he would not have died, but then they came back to it after Ala’bin Al-Hadrami (r.a) was dispatched to their region to talk some sense into them. Banu Bark tribe tried to make Banu Abdul-Qais go back to apostasy but a battle with Ala’bin Al-Hdrami put them in their place killing their apostate leader. Gradually they all returned to Islam.

    Laqit declared himself prophet in Oman and people of Oman and Mahrah turned apostates. Muslim commanders Hudhaifah bin Mihsan (r.a), Arfajah bin Harthamah (r.a), and Ikrimah in Abu Jahl (r.a) joined up in Oman and fought the apostates till they became victorious, taking 4000 captives, a large boot and leaving 1000 enemy dead.

    Aswad Ansi claimed Prophethood and created disturbance all over Yemen. He died during the lifetime of the Prophet (s). With two chiefs, Qais bin Makshuh and Amr bin Ma’dikarib, on their side the apostates became stronger. Muslims were small in numbers and were tortured to such extent that they left the area. Muhajir bin Abu Umayyah (r.a) was dispatched to fight them, Muslims were victories and the two chiefs were brought to Madinah where they admitted their wrong and returned to Islam.

    Banu Kindah turned apostates and were amassing a large army to attack the Muslims, led by Ash’ath bin Qais. Muahjir (r.a) attacked the army causing them to spread in fear while Ash’ath took refuge in a fort with other apostates. Severity of the seized made him surrender on the condition 9 people be spared, including his wife and children. But he forgot to name himself so he was taken captive and presented before Abu Bakr (r.a) where he expressed his regret and accepted Islam.

    Rome and Persia

    Roman Empire’s concern of power was in Rome, Italy with Julius Caesar and his heir Augustus as the rulers. This empire was later divided into two empires, western and eastern, with eastern part having its capital in Constantinople and king also called Caesar. Rebellion broke out and the subjects killed Caesar Publius and Heraclius, son of a governor of African territories became the next Caesar in Constantinople.

    At the birth of Prophet (s), Nushirwan Sassani was the emperor of Persian Empire and his grandson Chosroes (khosrau) was the ruler when Muhammad (s) was honored with Prophethood. During the 8th year of Prophethood, Persians conquered Syria and took away the cross from Bait-ul-Maqdis (Jerusalem). Polytheists in Makkah rejoiced for the polytheists of Persia, while Muslims sympathized for the people of the Book. Versus of Surat Ar-Rum were revealed detailing the defeat of the Persians and Romans taking back the city. Heraclius prepared for 6 or 7 years and defeated the Persians while Muslims defeated the polytheists of Makkah at the same time.

    Hearing the news of the death of the Prophet (s) and widespread apostasy, both Romans and Persians started to gather armies in Syria and Iraq to attack the Muslims.

    Battle of Dhat-us-Salasil

    Muslims side: Army divided into three parts by Khalid bin Walid (r.a)
    Commanders: Khalid bin Walid (r.a), Adi bin Hatim (r.a), Qa’qa bin Amr 9r.a)
    Troops: 18,000

    Location: Hafir, Persian province of Iraq

    Persian side: Hurmuz, governor and well skilled in military arts

    Persian army chained themselves with determination of winning or dying but end up breaking they chains and fleeing, leaving 1000s of men dead and injured. Battle named after these chains.

    Battale of Qarin

    In response to Hurmuz’s plea for help, large troop of reinforcements were sent by the Persian emperor

    Muslims won killing all 3 generals, Qarin, Qibad, and Anushjan with 30,000 fighters dead and large number running away and drowning in a canal

    Battle of Walajah

    Persian ruler sent a well-known horseman Andarzagar with a large army with another general, Bahman Jadwaih, to assist

    They were defeated by Khalid bin Walid (r.a) with their general dieing on the field from thirst. Bahman escaped to Ullais and where Persian fugitives joined his army as well as many Christian Arabs

    Battle of Ullais

    Khalid bin Walid (r.a) marched on to Ullais and engaged in the battle there.
    Persians suffered heavy causalities with 70,000 dead

    Conquest of Hirah

    It was seized until the Persian army fled from there, leaving the citizens behind. Hirah’s chief, Amr bin Abdul-Masih, won peace in return for 200,000 dirham as tribute and surrounding settlers also agreed to pay Jizyah and thus entire Tigris fell to Khalid bin Walid (r.a).

    Conquest of Anbar

    Persians gathered a big force and appointed Sherzad, ruler of Sabat, as its commander. They erected a high mound of clay outside and shot Muslims with arrows from there. About 1000 Muslim soldiers’ eyes were injured. Khalid bin Walid (r.a) slaughtered all the weak and exhausted camels and piled them up to reach the ramparts and beat the enemy. Sherzad requested to leave peacefully with few comrades and 3 days of provisions. Khalid bin Wali (r.a) allowed him that and entered the city victoriously.

    Conquest Ain-ut-Tamr

    Uqbah bin Uqbah asked Persian Commander Mehran bin Bahram to let his men fight the Muslims as only Arabs knew the war tactics of Arabs. He was captured alive in a duel with Khalid bin Walid (r.a) and Mehran fled his fort, which fell to the Muslim army.

    Conquest of Dumat-ul-Jandal

    Dumat-ul-Jandal had two rulers, Ukaidir bin Malik and Judi bin Rabi’ah, who had collection Christians of surrounding areas to fight Muslims. Iyad (r.a) request the help of Khalid bin Walid (r.a) to combat them. Upon arrival of Khalid bin Walid (r.a), Ukaidir requested his counsel to make a deal with the Muslims but they refused and thus Ukaidir left alone to some unknown place. But he was intercept and died fighting Muslims. Judi was captured by Khalid bin Walid (r.a) and his men fled the battleground and Iyad bin Ghanam (r.a) also prevailed over his Christian opponents and made them flee.

    Battle of Husaid

    Seeing Khalid bin Walid (r.a) not being in Hirah, Persians launched an all out war led by two well known Persian generals, Zarmahr and Rozbah. Arab tribes also lent their support in order to avenge their dead chief Uqbah bin Uqbah. Qa’qa bin Amr (r.a), deputy of Khalid bin Walid (r.a) in Hirah, divided his forces into two and had Abu Laila (r.a) lead the other half. Muslims won while the Persians fled to Khanafis to their commander Bahbudhan and then to Mudaiyah with his army.

    Battle of Mudaiyah

    Khalid bin Walid (r.a) took over the command of the entire Muslim army and divided it into 3 parts, giving other two to Qa’qa and Abu Laila (r.a), and attacked the enemy from 3 different sides. Huddhail bin Imran and other Arabian chiefs that were waiting for avenge but Huddhail fled for his life while other generals along with a large number of men were put to death.

    Battle of Firad

    Firad was the meeting-ground of Persia, Syria and Arabia and was adjacent to Dumat-ul-Jandal.

    Enemy: Banu Tahlib, Banu Namir and Banu Iyyad with backing of Roman army making their total army 8 to 10 fold more in numbers

    Khalid bin Walid (r.a) soldiers were already exhausted from continuously fighting the enemy. This battle went on for a whole day ending with Romans defeat and fleeing, leaving behind 100,000 dead.

    Battle of Yarmuk

    Fearing the attack of the enemy in the morning, Khalid bin Walid (r.a) divided his army of about 40-46,000 into small squads to engage the enemy. Romans with 40,000 soldiers but were pushed back. Than Roman general Jurjah bin Budhiyah came with his column to talk to Khalid bin Walid (r.a), requesting to know more about Islam. He converted and switched side to the Muslim sides and fought till he was martyred. The battle then continued as the Romans started to lose heart and kept backing off till they were backed into a mountain and then the river where many drowned as they tried to flee. Enemies killed were 130,000 while rest fled.

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    Umar bin Al-Khattab (r.a)

    He was among nobles of the Quraish. During Days of Ignorance, diplomatic missions were assigned to his family. His family also did peacekeeping missions whenever there was a war among tribes.

    His lineage is: Umar bin Khattab bin Nufail bin Abdul-Uzza bin Riyah bin Abdullah bin Qurat bin Razah bin Adi bin Ka’b in Luai.

    Ka’b had two sons, Adi and Murrah, Murrah was among the ancestors of the Prophet (s) and the ancestry of the Prophet (s) and Umar becomes common from eight generations back.

    Prophet (s) gave him the title Faruq. At the time of advent of the Prophet (s), as per Futuh-ul-Buldan, there were only 17 people in whole clan of Quraish who could read and write, Umar (r.a) being one of them. He had married several times. Among his wives were:

    · Zainab bint Maz’un bin Habib bin Wahb bin Hudafah bin Jumh, married while in state of Ignorance. She was sister of Uthman bin Maz’un (r.a) who was the 14th to embrace Islam. She accepted Islam and died in the same city. She gave birth to Abdullah, Abdu-Rahman (elder) and Hafsah.
    · Mulaikah bint Jarwal khuza’I, married in state of Ignorance. She gave birth to Ubaidullah and was divorced in 6AH since refused to accept Islam.
    · Qaribah bint Abu Umayyah Makhzumi, married in state of Ignorance and was divorced in 6AH since refused to accept Islam following Truce of Hudaibiah.
    · Umm Hakim bint Al-Harith bin HishamMakhzumi. She gave birth to Fatimah.
    · Jamilah bint Asim bin Thabit bin Abu Aflah Ausi Ansari, was divorced for some reason. She gave birth to Asim.
    · Umm Khulthum (r.a), daughter of Ali (r.a). She gave birth to Ruqayyah and Zaid.
    · Atikah bint Zaid bin Amr bin Nufail. She was cousin of Umar (r.a)
    · Fukaihah Yamenia, some say she was his slave-girl who gave birth to Abdur-Rahman (the middle one).

    His daughter Hafsah (r.a) was married to the Prophet (s) and son Abdullah bin Umar (r.a) accompanied the Prophet (s) in all the battles.

    · He (r.a) invented and enforced many things in the spere of political, financial, administrative and social sectors. These included:
    · Set up a formal Bait-ul-Mal or public treasury
    · Introduce Hijri calendar,
    · Adopted appellation of Amir-ul-Mo’minin (chief of the Believers),
    · Set up a regular department for military and separate department for financial affairs
    · Fixed salaries for men in voluntary services
    · Practice of measuring land and keeping its records
    · Adopted a census system
    · Dug canals and populated cities like Kufah, Basrah, Jizah, Fustat (Cair) and delineated provinces out of the occupied territories
    · First to allow rival country’s traders to come to Muslim lands for purpose of busines
    · First to use whip for corporal punishment and set up a prison and police department
    · Introduced a system of collecting direct information concerning states and conditions of the masses
    · Established secret intelligence service
    · Had wells bored, built houses and fixed a daily allowance for the destitute among the Christians and Jews
    · Started Congregational Tarawih prayers and 4 Takbir for funeral prayer
    · Levied Zakat on horses for trading purposes

    Umar (r.a) ruled for 10.5 years. His conquests included Roman Empire, which had Balkan Peninsula, Asia Minor, Syria, Palestine, Egypt, and Sudan, and Persia, Iraq, Jazirah, Khursan, Baluchistan, and Armenia. The assassin of Umar (r.a) was a Persian origin Christian slave named Firoz in Al-Madinah whose patronymic was Abu Lulu. When Umar (r.a) came to lead the prayers Firoz rushed from the first rank of lines and struck Umar (r.a) 6 times with a poisonous dagger. As he was arrested he committed suicide. Suhaib (r.a) led Umar (r.a)’s funeral prayer while Ali, Zubair, Uthman Abdur-Rahman bin Auf and Abdullah bin Umar (r.a) lowered his boy into the grae and performed burial service.

    Wounded Umar (r.a) was taken to his house where he sent for Abdur-Rahman bin Auf, Sa’d bin Abu Waqqas, Zubair bin Awwam, Talhah, Ali, and Uthman bin Affan (r.a). Talhah (r.a) was outside of Al-Madinah. Umar (r.a) said to wait for Talhah for 3 days and include him in your panel and if he does not then choose your caliph among yourselves. He told his son Abdullah bin Umar (r.a) to chose the majority if they are divided and if the number is equal than chose the side Abdur-Rahman bin Auf is on.

    Banishment of Najran Christians

    Christians of Najran in Yemen were playing the same role as the Jews of Madinah, in that they were inviting enemies of Islam to attack Muslims and invade them. They also had an agreement with the Prophet (s) to stop practicing usury but they failed to implement it. Umar (r.a) asked ya’la bin Ummay (r.a.) to tell the Christians to level the country and that they would be provided with land that is more fertile plus other facilities in Syria. Exiled of this kind will never be found among any nations in history of man. We often see exile by the civilized nations forcing people to leave home, property and wealth, and they even indulge in mass killing, rape and other crimes.

    Conquest of Damascus

    Under Heraclius order from Fihl, Roman soldiers regrouped after the defeat in Yarmuk and refortified themselves in Damascus, awaiting large reinforcement from Palestine and Hims. Abu Ubaidah bin Jarrah (r.a) dispatched the Iraqi detachment led by accompanied by Khalid bin Wali (r.a) to Iraq under the command of Hashim bin Utbah (ra.). He sent a contingent towards Fihl, and rest army divided into number of divisions. One column under Dhul-Kala (r.a) was sent to obstruct Romans movement from Hims to Damascus, another column sent to stop them marching from Palestine to Damascus. When no help was coming, the fortified Romans decided to enter in peace with Khalid bin Walid (r.a) while other Muslim commanders attacked from other side of the city at the same time, unknowing of what transpired at Khalid bin Walid (r.a)’s side of the city. Some narratives believe that the Romans wanted to see the strength of the Muslims and would fall back on the peace document should they lose against the Muslims.

    Battle of Fihl

    Before leaving Damascus, Abu Ubaidah (r.a) assigned to Khalid bin Walid (r.a) advance-guard, middle to Shurrahbil bin Hasanah (r.a), right wing to Amr bin As (r.a) and lead left wing himself. Dirar bin Azwar 9r.a) was given charge of cavalry, Iyad bin Ghanam (r.a) given the infantry. Every commander camped at their own place of choice.

    Romans, with their commander Saqlar bin Mikhraq, attacked the middle portion of the Muslim army at night. Seeing the military movements, other Muslim commanders joined the battle and the fighting continued for a few days. Muslims were victorious while Romans fled, leaving 80,000 dead, include the general, and a large booty.

    Conquest of Baisan

    Muslim army moved from Filh and seized Basian. In the meantime, Romans were trying to attack Damascus against o regain it. Khalid bin Walid (r.a) was sent to there to help Yazid bin Abu Sufyan (r.a), the governor. He attacked the Romans from the rear while the governor attacked from front, killing every single Roman soldier. Finally, Baisan people made an offer of peace which was granted to them immediately.

    Conquest of Saida, Irqah and Beirut

    Yazid bin Abu Sufyran sent his brother Mu’awiyah bin Abu Sufyran to Irqah head of a squadron. Irqah was conquered without facing any resistance.

    Yazin then turned to Said, Habil and Beirut and took them over.

    Rustam, governor of Khurasan, sent a large army to Kaskar headed by Nasri, experienced general of royal family and the third strong army lead by Jaban towards Euphrates. Abu Ubaidah (r.a) attacked the army of Jaban at Namariq and tore up their ranks. Jaban was captured by a Muslim solider, Matar bin Fiddah, who didn’t recognize him as Jaban and so Jaban offered him 2 slaves and bought his freedom. He was freed but another Muslim Soldier recognized him and caught him. When he was brought before Abu Ubaid (r.a), after probing the matter and finding out he was given peace and safety by a Muslim soldier, the Persian general was released.

    Conquest of Kaskar

    Nasri camped at Kaskar with 30,000 soldiers
    Jaban and his defeated army joined Nasri
    Rustam dispatched from Mada’in huge army headed by general Jalinus

    Abu Ubaid bin Mas’ud Thaqafi (r.a) engaged Nasr in the battle leading center of the army
    Sa’d bin Ubaid (r.a) led right wing, Sulait bin Qais (r.a) led the left wing

    Nasri fled after the Persians starting loosing, and seeing him flee made other Persians flee as well

    Battle of Baqshia

    Nasri was defeated before Jalinus could join him so Jalinus stayed in Baqshia. Abu Ubaid (r.a) marched to Baqshia and attacked Jalinus army there. Jalinus fled to Mada’in.

    Rustam ushered more support to crush the Muslims. He sent Bihman Jadwhaih with a huge army along with 300 combat elephants, a large quantity of provisions and Kavyani Banner that Persians thought made them invincible. Jalinus was sent also with reinforcements and a threat of death if he flees again.

    The two armies met at Euphrates where inquiring both sides, the Muslims crossed the river to Persian’s side to start battle on that side. Muslim horses were scare as they had never seen elephants and Muslims were losing when Abu Ubaid (r.a) instructed them to strike the elephant’s trunks and feet. During this battle Abu Ubaid (r.a) was martyred by elephant stepping on his chest. The Muslim banner went to his brother Hakam who too was killed and 7 were killed like this. Eight person hold the banner was Muthanna bin Harithah (r.a) who held up the first rank while Muslims repaired the bridge and crossed back to the other side. About 6,000 Muslims were martyred and about same number of enemies were killed. This battle took place in Sha’ban 13 AH.

    Battle of Buwaib

    Umar (r.a) sent reinforcements to strengthen Muthanna bin Haritha (r.a)’s army. Rustam did the same sending a huge army under Mehran Hamadani.

    Muthanna (r.a) encamped at Buwaib, along the Euphrates and as per custom both armies inquire which side to fight and the Persians came to this side of the river this time. Merhan initiated the battle and Muslims responded back. When Muthannah (r.a) noticed Persians running away, he rushed forward and broke the bridge leaving a large number of the army to be either killed or drowned. Mehran Hamadani was killed on the battlefield. As per Ibn Khaldun’s account, 100,000 Persians were killed while only 100 Muslims were martyred. Persian fugitives were given chase up to Sabat. Muslims were victorious, controlling the entire territory from Sawad to Tigris. This battle took place in Ramadan 13 AH.

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    Sa’d bin Waqqas in Iraq

    Umar (r.a) wanted to lead the army in the battle to deal with the Persians himself but at protest and counseling of others Sa’d bin Waqqas was recommended to lead the troops instead. Sa’d (r.a) pitched his camp at Siraf. On to Siraf from Tha’labah, 3,000 warriors of Banu Asad joined Sa’d’s army. Another 2,000 joined under Ash’ath bin Qais. Also, 8,000 more troops of Muthanna joined Sa’d. Total troops were around 20-30,000 which included 300 companions who were present during the pledge of Ridwan and 70 of them were in battle of Badr.

    a. Rustam’s Departure from Mada’in

    Yezdgird, the Emperor of Persia, forced Rusam, his war minister, to take action and go to Qadisiyah personally to bring an end to the long standing problem of the Arabs. Rustam tried having small dispatches here and there to engage the Muslims but Yezdgird disapproved and pressured him to march and attack directly. Rustam went with an army of 150,000 to face the Muslims.

    b. Battle of Qadisiyah

    A canal separated the two armies. Rustam’s army came over and prepared for the battle. Muslim sides took heavy casualties because of the elephants. Sa’d (r.a) commanded the archers to shot at the elephants and riders of the elephants. The battle stopped at night time. Sa’d (r.a) buried 500 Muslims after Fajr. Muslim reinforcements came from Syria headed by Hashim bin Utbah. He divided his 6,000 strong detachment into small segments and all entered the battle field in short intervals. The day long battle left 1,000 Muslims Martyred and 10,000 enemy dead. Third day the battle continued all day with a short rest and sunset and then it started again all night. Qa’qa (r.a) called for the head of Rustam and his force attacked the main force with other tribes joining in as well. Hilan bin Ullafah killed Rustam and yelled out stating he killed Rustam. The Muslim troops cried Allahu Akbr while the Persians started to fled in fear. Out of 31,000 Persian cavaliers only 30 saved their lives. About 6,000 Muslims were martyred. Zuhrah bin Hawiyah chased and killed Jalinus who was collecting runaway Persian soldiers.

    c. Fall of Babylon and Kutha

    The Persians escaped to Babylon after fleeing from Qadisiyah. A number of renowned generals started preparing for the battle there. When Sa’d (r.a) showed up with his troops, the generals moved to Mada’in, Ahwaz and Nihawan destroying the bridges on the way. Sa’d (r.a) sent Zurhrah bin Hawiyah ahead with a vanguard to Kutha where Shahryar opposed him and personally came on the battle field. Seeing his arrogance, Zuhrah sent a slave of the Tamim clan, Na’il bin Ju’shum A’raj, to kill him. Seeing Shahryar killed, the Persians took to their feet and fled.

    Kutha was the historical place where Nimrod is said to have imprisoned Abraham (Ibrahim a.s). The dungeon was still preserved as a relic.

    d. Fall of Bahurasir

    This city was close the capital and was heavily guarded by imperial guards. It’s people came out to attack the Muslims and met their destruction while Yezdgrid escaped with his treasure.

    The Persians had destroyed all the bridges of Tigris to Mad’ain. Sa’d (r.a) took a cavalry and had the horses dive into the river and across it to the other side to fight the enemies waiting for them. Hearing the news of Muslims crossing the Tigris, Yezdgrid fled again.

    e. Conquest of Mada’in

    Muslim troops entered the city and Sa’d (r.a) entered the While Palace (royal palace) reciting verses 44:25-28. He offered 8 rakat of salat-ul-fath (victory prayer). In the palace of Kisra (Chosroes), a pulpit was set in place of the royal throne and Friday payer was performed. This was the first Friday prayer performed in the Persian Capital.

    f. Conquest of Jalula

    After the fall of Mada’in, Yezdird fled to Hulwan. Kharzad bin Farkhzad, brother of Rustam Farkhzad, started amassing a huge army. Sa’d (r.a) wrote Umar (r.a) who replied that Hashim bin Utbah should be sent at head of 12,000 troops with vanguard, right wing, left wing, and the rear guard commanded by Qa’qa, Ma’shar in Malik, Amr bin Malik and Amir bin Murrah. Hashim reached Jalula on 4th day and laid siege to it. There were a few sudden attacks until Persians finally decided to come out and attack at once. They lost with 130,000 troops dead and spoils of worth 30,000 million in Muslim hands. Hearing the news Yezdgird left Hulwan for Rey. Qa’qa was dispatched to Hulwan to take care of it.

    Syrian Engagements

    a. Fall of Hims

    Hims is one of the important districts of Syria. Abu Ubaidah bin Al-Jarrah (r.a) marched to Hims and halted at Dhul-Kla. Heraclius sent General Taudhar and Shams to go battle. Shams was killed by Abu Ubaidah (r.a) during the battle. Hims fell followed by Hamah, Al-Ladhiqiyah and Salamyah.

    b. Fall of Qinnasrin

    Following Salamyah, Khalid bin Walid (r.a) went to Qinnasrin, with permission from Abu Ubaidah (r.a), and took it over. It was guarded by Minas, who was second to Heraclius in position.

    Abu Ubaidah (r.a) laid a seige to Halab and took that over followed by Antakiyah (Antioch), which was the Asian capital of Heraclius. Antakiyah earned peace in return for paying the Jizyah. After fall of Antakiyah, dozens of surrounding villages and towns on their own came to the fold of the Muslim forces.

    c. Conquest of Baghras, Mar’ash and Hadath

    A detachment under Maisarah bin Masruq was sent to Baghras, a town in neighborhood of Antakiyah and bordering on the frontier of Asia Minor. Many Arab Christians here were joining to accompany the Romans to the Emperor Heraclius. Misarah bin Masruq with reinforcement under Malik bin Ashtar Nakh’i defeated them. Khalid binWalid (r.a) led a column against Mar’ash which surrendered on condition Christians should evacuate the city. Hadath (old name for Ararat Mountain) was taken over in same manner by Habib bin Maslamah.

    d. Conquest of Qaisariyah and Ajnadain

    Yazid bin Abu Sufyan, governor of Damascus, sent his brother, Mu’awiyah bin Abu Sufyan, to conquer Qaisariyah. The city fell to Muslim with 80,000 Christians dead. Heraclius sent General Artabun to Ajndain to fight. Amr bin Al’As (r.a) went to face him while he dispatched Alqamah bin Hakim Firasi and Masrur bin Al-Akki to Jerusalem and Abu Ayub Al-Mailiki to Ramlah. Artabun fell and Ajnadain fled to Jerusalem.

    e. Conquest of Jerusalem

    After Artabun, Amr bin Al-As (r.a) conquered Ghazzah, Sabastiyah, Nabulus (Nablus), Ludd, Amawas, Bait Jibrin, and Yafa. He then went to Jerusalem and Abu Ubaidah (r.a) also joined him there. See the developments, the Christians offered to surrender and sign the peace treaty on the condition that Caliph would come and sign it. After some consultations, Umar (r.a) decided to visit Jerusalem. He had a bag full of parched barley meal, a camel, a slave, and a wooden cup in his possession. The Chief of the Muslims and his slave took turns riding the camel as they made their journey. He was walking and the slave was riding when they made it to Jerusalem. This is the sign the Christians were looking for from their scriptures and seeing this they were more than ready to give the key of their city to him. They paid the Jizyah on the spot and opened the city doors after signing the peace treaty. The people of Ramlah also followed suit.

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    Fall of Takrit and Jazirah

    Takrit was under a junior Persian commissioned officer. He rallied support from Persians, Romans and even other Christian Arab tribes, such as Iyyad, Taghlib and Namir. Umar (r.a) instructed Sa’d bin Abu Waqqas (r.a) to send Abdullah bin Al Mu’tam to head the expedition with 5,000 troops. The city was invaded and the enemies defeated, with most of the Arabians embracing Islam.

    Jazirah was between frontiers of Syria and Iraq and was annexed by both Empires. They requested help from Heraclius and promised to fight alongside the troops and help. Umar (r.a) instructed Sa’d (r.a) to keep watch on the movements of Jazirah people and Abu Ubaidah (r.a) to obstruct the march of Heraclius detachment. Iyad bin Ghanam (r.a) captured province of Jazirah after small skirmishes. This took place in 17 AH.

    Conquest of Ahwaz

    After running from the battle of Qaisiyah, Persian Commander Hurmuz took refuge in Khuzestan, the capital of Ahwaz, and started amassing an army. Muslims emerged rom Kufah and Basrah and charged the city. Hurmuzan made peace and paid the Jizyah but few days later he rose in revolt and was beaten again. He fled to Tustar and prepared for the battle there. Abu Musa (r.a) was sent there by Umar (r.a) and he took over the city, defeating the Persians. When the fort was about to fall Hurmuzan petitioned to surrender if was granted to be sent to Al-Madinah to Umar (r.a). When he was in the presence of Umar (r.a), he accepted Islam and was given a place to live in Al-Madinah , an annual salary, and was consulted during campaigns of Persia.

    Conquest of Egypt

    During Umar (r.a)’s stay in Jerusalem, Amr bin Al-As (r.a) obtained his permission to attack Egypt. Amr (r.a) marched with 4,000 troops and the king of Egypt, Muqauqis, was given three choices: Islam, Jizyah, or battle. Artabun and his army was in Egypt at that time and when he moved forward he was defeated and forced to flee. Muslims than advanced and took over Ainu Shams, and seized Farama and Alexandria (Iskandariyah). Both cities fell to Muslims. Alexandria fell before Amr (r.a) after 3 months of siege.

    Battle of Nahawand

    After conquest of Mada’in and Jalula, Yezdgird shifted to Rey and then to Isfahan. He rallied Tabaristan, Jurjan, Khurasan, Isfahan, Hamadan, and Sindh to fight the Muslims. The army of 150,00 headed by Firoz or Mardan was dispatched to Nahawand.

    Umar (r.a) had deputy of Sa’d (r.a) dispatch forces from Kufah under the command of Nu’man bin Muqarrin (r.a). Umar (r.a) also instructed Muslim troops stationed in Ahwaz to blockade Persia and Isfahan so people of Nahawan couldn’t get any help.

    Nu’man bin Muqarrin (r.a)’s brother Nu’aim bin Muqarrin was the vanguard, Hudhaifah bin Yaman (r.a) at right flank, Suwaid bin Muqarrin at left flank, Qa’qa at infantry and Mjashi’ bin Mas’ud at rearguard. Total Muslim troops was 30,000.

    Persians would attack Muslim army and then run back to their fort. At suggest of Tulaihah bin Khuwailid the Muslim army retreated about 6 to 7 miles and Qa’qa faced the enemy with a column. When Persians saw the small number of troops, they call came out to attack. As they attacked, Qa’qa and his men kept moving back slowly while fighting until the Persians were too far from their Fort to go back and hide. The rest of the Muslim army attacked and defeated the Persians. Nahawand fell to the Muslims, the fire temple in it was put down. The high priest of the temple requested before Hudhaifa (r.a) for safety of his life and property in exchange for priceless royal treasures. He was granted as such and in return he brought out all the hidden treasures.

    General Conquest of Persia

    Fall of Nahawand was followed by Hamadan but later rose in revolt. Being fed up with continual revolts of the Persian regions, Umar (r.a) ordered a general attack.

    Isfahan was the first link in chain of conquests. These were:
    · Azerbaija and Rey by Nu’aim bin Muqarrin
    · Qumis by Suwaid bin Muqarrin, brother of Nu’aim bin Muqarrin
    · Jurjan and entire province of Tabaristan by Utbah
    · Armenia by Bukair
    · Baida and Khazar by Abdur-Rahman bin Rabi’ah
    · Province of Seistan by Asim bin Umar (r.a)
    · Kirman by Suhail bin Adi
    · Makran (Baluchistan) by Hakam bin Amr Taghlabi

    Full-scale batted was anticipated from Yezdgird in Khurasan. Ahnaf bin Qais (r.a) attacked Balk with reinforcements and captured all of Khursan while Yezdgird fled to Turkistan. Ahnaf (r.a) wanted to advance further but Umar (r.a) declined stating that expansionist policy was not a good thing.

    Yezdgird fled to Khaqan, the Emperor of China, and then came back with a huge army but was defeated again. He gathered all his treasures and decided to go to Turkistan but seeing his luck, his courtiers despoiled him of all his riches. He fled to Khaqan again.


    After the Prophet (s) , the period of Abu Bakr (r.a) and Umar (r.a) is referred to as the rule of the first half of the Rightly-Guided Caliphate. The prominent features of this period were that the material world did not dominate the Faith. Vested interests, relationships and friendships were not allowed to influence the worked that had to be done at anytime. The people brought up under the loving care and spiritual guidance of the Prophet (s) dominated the scene everywhere. Everywhere they were known for their piety, purity, simplicity and honesty. Neither Abu Bakr (r.a) nor Umar (r.a) sent a single penny from the public treasury or let others do it. The caliphs of Islam had no personal concern nor ever made any attempt for personal gain. During the second half of the Rightly-Guided Caliphate, these qualities of head and heart appeared to gradually recede and with them ended the Righteous Caliphate.

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    Uthamn bin Affan (r.a)

    His family lineage is Uthman bin Affan bin Abu Al-As Umayyah bin Abd Shams bin Abd Munaf bin Qusai bin Kilab bin Murrah bin Ka’b bin Luai bin Ghalib. His appellation was Abu Amr in state of Ignorance but after Islam he married Ruqayyah (r.a), the daughter of the Prophet (s) who gave birth to Abdullah, and so his appellation changed to Abu Abdullah. The maternal grandmother of Uthman (r.a) was the full sister of Abdullah bin Abdul-Muttalib, the father of Prophet (s) and thus Uthman (r.a) was the cousin of Prophet (s).

    He was matchless in modesty. He migrated twice, to Abyssinia and Al-Madinah. He resembled the Prophet (s) in physcial appearance. Prophet (s) engaged his daughter Ruqayyah (r.a) to him before attaining Prophethood. She died on day of battle of Badr and Prophet (s) married him to her second daughter, Umm Kulthum (r.a). For this reason he is known as “The man of Two Lights. She also died in 9 AH. No man in the world other than Uthman (r.a) ever married two daughters of a Prophet. He knew more than anyone about Hajj rites and was the 4th man to embrace Islam through Abu Bakr (r.a).

    He spent without holding back in way of Allah, excessive in prayers and fasting, would set one slave free every week and never told a lie. He bought a piece of land adjacent to the Prophet (s)’s Mosque for the wives of the Prophet (s). He gave 1,000 camels and 50 horses for the expedition of Tabuk. Once famine broke out in Al-Madinah and Uthman (r.a) donated generously to help the need. Muslims in Al-Madinah were suffering once due to scarcity of water and a Jew had a well but was selling the water at very high price. Uthman (r.a) bought the well from him for 35,000 dirham and gave it for use by the Muslims.

    He was polite to the extreme. During his caliphate, Muslims indulged in a life of luxuries and comforts and the dread and awe of the Caliph had eroded. Ambition and power hungry sections got ample opportunity to do as they pleased. He was assassinated by rioters under the influence of Abdullah bin Saba, a Jew who became a Muslim to profit from the destruction of the caliphate. He died at age of 82 after being caliph for 12 years. He was buried in Jannat-ul-Baqi leaving behind 11 sons and 6 daughters.

    Conquest of Alexandria

    Heraclius had taken refuge in Constantinople (Istanbul) after his flight from Asia Minor and Syria following the Bait-ul-Maqsis. More than half of his lands were now in Muslims hands. He died in shock and terror and his son Qustuntim (Constantine) took over. When Amr bin Al-As invaded Egypt, Muqauqis, the king of Egypt yielded to him earning peace by paying Jizyah. Constantine mobilized and army to take Egypt and Alexandria back but Muqauqis prevent the Romans from making entry into Alexandria and kept his promise of paying Jizyah and keeping peace. Muslims came from Fustat (Cairo) and battled with the Romans, killing their commander and a large number of their soldiers while the rest barely reached back home by boat. Afterwards, Amr bin Al-As (r.a) made survey of the losses suffered by the people of Alexandria and its suburbs and compensated everyone for their damages as he held himself responsible for the safety of the Dhimmi. This happened in 25 AH.

    Conquest of Armenia

    Romans invasion of Alexandria was because of the demise of Umar (r.a) and the Persians did the same by uprising in territories of Hamadan and Rey. Uthman bin Affan (r.a) sent Abu Musa Ash’ari, Bara’ bin Azib and Qarazah bin Ka’b (r.a) to handle the situation.

    Umar (r.a) had removed Sa’b bin Waqqas (r.a) and Uthman bin Affan (r.a) reinstated him as governor of Kufrah. When he was unable to pay the money he borrowed from Abdullah bin Mas’ud (r.a), the treasure, he was replaced with Walid bin Uqbah bin Abu Mu’ait. Since Sa’d (r.a) was very pious and Allah-fearing and Walid bin Uqbah was not equal in this trait, the people of Kufah were not happy with the change. Utbah bin Farqad (r.a) who was appointed by Sa’d (r.a) to look after the affairs of Azerbaijan was also removed, leading the people of Azerbaijan to revolt. Walid bin Uqbah invaded them and they were forced to make peace on the old terms and agreed to pay the Jizyah. Walid bin Uqbah (r.a) was the foster brother of Uthman bin Affan (r.a).

    Mu’waiyah (r.a), governor of Damascus had sent Habib bin Maslamah (r.a) to Armenia where he conquered the cities and forts and forced the Romans to pay the Jizyah. Because of this Caesar of Constantinople sent 80,000 troops from Malit, Siwas, and Quniah and invaded Habib bin Maslamah (r.a). Hearing this the Caliph had Walid bin Uqbaah, governor of Kufah, send 10,000 troops for reinforcement with a dispatch headed by Salman bin Rabi’ah to Armenia. Jointly they both won Armenia and reached up to the Caucasus Mountains. On return of Habib bin Maslamah, Mu’awiyah 9r.a) invaded the Roman territory. Roman fighters fled leaving Antakiyah (Antioch) and their citadels behind. This happened in 25 AH.

    Events of Egypt

    Abdullah bin Sa’d (r.a) known as Ibn Abu Sarh was the foster brother of Uthman bin Affan (r.a). During the lifetime of the Prophet (s) he had left Islam but later confessed to it fully. Uthman (r.a) made him the governor of Egypt and head of the public treasury while Amr bin Al-as (r.a) was just a military officer. When relations worsened with military, the Caliph deposed Amr bin Al-As (r.a) and transferred entire power of Egpyt and Alexandria to Sa’d (r.a). The Egyptians revolted in protest since Amr (r.a) was more popular with them. Seeing this the Caesar of Constantinople and conquered Alexandria. Amr (r.a) was sent to Egypt again as a governor who fought the Romans giving them heavy losses and conquering Alexandria for the 3rd time. When everything started running smooth, Amr (r.a) was disposed again and replaced with Sa’d (r.a).

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    Conquest of Africa

    Abdullah bin Sa’d (r.a) got permission from Uthman (r.a) to invaded Iraq and marched there with 10,000 troops. Africa was considered a country back then stretching from Tripoli to Tangiers. He first brought the chiefs of Barqah to obey and pay Jizyah. Then they marched towards Tripoli, capturing territories along the way and receiving fresh reinforcements before getting there. Romans tried to put up resistance but were defeated.

    Gregory, King of Africa, was the vassal of Caesar who assembled 120,000 troops to face the Muslims. He was first invited to Islam then to pay the Jizyah and then battle started after he refused both options. The battle went on for 3 days. Second day of the battle Sa’d (r.a) was reluctant to go on the battle field since Gregory made an offer of 100,000 dinars and the hand of his daughter to one who would bring Sa’d (r.a)’s head to him. Upon the advice of Abdullah bin Zubair (r.a), Sa’d (r.a) made a counter offer of offering 100,000 dinars, the hand of the daughter of Gregory, and rule over the conquered land and thus joined the battle. On the third day, upon the suggestion of Zubair (r.a) decided to leave half the army behind and take half to the battle field and at night time when both sides are retreating to their camps, the other half of the Muslim army will attack them. This strategy worked and Gregory was killed with his head on the spear of Zubair (r.a). In 27 AH Sa’d (r.a) returned to Egypt after a year and 3 months of absence.

    Conquest of Cyprus and Rhodes

    Abdullah bin Nafi became the governor of Egypt the same year Sa’d (r.a) came back from Africa. In 28 AH, Constantine sent his navy to Africa and demanded tribute for Caesar but was refused by Africans because he failed to come to their rescue from the Muslims. Constantine fought them and defeated them and advanced towards Alexandria. Caesar also set off to conquer Alexandria with a fleet of 600 boats. Romans fought from both sides but were defeated, having them escape to Cyprus, which they were using as their naval headquarters and weapons arsenal.

    At the time of death of Umar (r.a) Mu’awiyah (r.a) was the governor of Damascus and Jordan while Hims and Qinnasrin were governed by Umair bin Saeed Ansari and Palestine by Abdur-Rahman bin Alqamah. After the resignation of Umair bin Saeed Ansari and death of Abdur-Rahman, their lands came under Mu’awiyah making the ruler of all the districts of Syria. During the last days of Umar (r.a)’s caliphate, Mu’awiyah (r.a) requested permission to invade Cyprus from the Syrian coast. Umar (r.a) had some hesitations and it remained undecided and later Uthman (r.a) allowed it on the condition that nobody was forced to take part in it. Constantine could not take the attack and fled to Constantinople where he succumbed to death. According to other resources, frustrated by his defeat after defeat some people killed him in his bathroom.

    After conquest of Cyprus, M u’awiyah (r.a) marched to Rhodes where he had a fierce battle with Romans till they were defeated. On this Island there was a giant-like copper idol so huge that ships could pass between its legs. It was chopped down into pieces and sent back to Alexandria with the troops where the Jews purchased them.

    Events of 30-35 AH

    In 30 AH:

    Abu Dhar Ghifari (r.a) and Mu’awiyah had a difference of opinion on the verse 9:34 regarding hoarding wealth vs spending it. Abu Dhar Ghifari (r.a) was of the opinion that all wealth should be spend in the way of Allah while Mu’awiyah (r.a) believed it referred to paying Zakat only and rest after that was allowed to be kept in deposit. People, especially the young ones, started to make fun of Abu Dhar Ghifari (r.a) for his opinions and so Mu’awiyah (r.a) requested the Caliph call him to Al-Madinah to settle there but the same thing happened there and so Uthman (r.a) suggested to him to go live in a village outside of Madinah.

    The Prophet (s) had a ring which he used to seal letters and orders. It was preserved with Aisha (r.a) after the death of the Prophet (s) and was given to Abu Bakr (r.a) and then passed down to Umar (r.a) who entrusted it to his daughter and Mother of the believers, Hafsah (r.a) to be given to the next Caliph. When Uthman (r.a) had the ring it fell in a well in Quba and despite all efforts was never found. Since then Uthman (r.a) had no peace in life and remained surrounded by calamities of all kinds.

    Number of people attending congregation prayer, especially Jummah (Friday prayer) increased to the extent that 2 Adhans came into practice. One was called from a raised spot prior to the Adhan preceding the address.

    Uthman (r.a) advised the Companions to sell their properties in Iraq, Syria and buy in Makkah, Madinah and Ta’if.

    Assuming govern ship of Kufah, Saeed bin Al-As invaded Tabaristan and Jurjan and conquered them.

    Hudhaifah bin Al-Yaman (r.a) mentioned how people of Iraq, Syria, Basra and Kufah, and Persia recited Quran differently. Uthman (r.a) having consultations with distinguished Companions endorsed the opinion of Hudhaifah (r.a) to have one Quran only. Copy of the Quran compiled by Zaid bin Thabit (r.a) and other Companions during caliphate of Abu Bakr (r.a) and passed to Umar (r.a) and then to his daughter Hafsah (r.a), Mother of the believers, was brought and copied by a number of qualified people and sent to each big city to be used while all old copies were to be set on fire.

    In 31 AH:

    According to fresh orders from the office of the caliphate, new governors were appointed to some territories.

    Persian Empire was destroyed during the caliphate of Umar (r.a) and rest of the cities and frontier provinces were conquered during caliphate of Uthman (r.a). Yezdgird, Empire of Persia, was still running place to place for safety. Since he was still at large, Persians kept revolting in hopes of having their glory back one day. Yezdgird went to suburbs of Balk with a party from China and Turkistan and captured some cities but had to flee again. He was taking refuge in a windmill when the order killed in his sleep out of greed. This was in August, 23 641 CE. He lived 4 years in luxury, 16 in affliction and vagrancy, and 10 of those 16 as a fugitive.

    In 32 AH:

    In Dhul-Hijjah 31 AH, when Abdullah bin Amir (r.a) left for hajj, a Persian general Qarin saw opportunity to restore from Persian provinces and attacked with 40,000 troops. Abdullah bin Hazim, a Muslim general, faced them with 3-4,000 troops only. He instructed them cover their spears with a cloth and drench it in oil or fat and set it on fire at night time and attack the Persians. Persian soldiers fled in shock and bewilderment of the flames.

    In 33 AH:

    Abdullah bin Saba, known as Ibn Sauda’, was a Jew from San’a who accepted Islam with intention of taking advantage of the progress and prosperity of the Muslims. He was an antagonistic to Islam and hostile to Uthman (r.a). He settled in Madinah to get into the internal affairs and weakness of the Muslims to exploit. Hakim bin Jabalah, man from Basrah, enlist with Muslim troops but would plunder Dhimmi and commit highway robbery with criminals. He was detained for his crimes. Abdullah bin Saba went to Basrah and made close ties with Hakim. He then started creating mischief by telling people if Isa (Jesus a.s) could come back to life so could Muhammad (a.s) and misinterpreted the Quran to give support. When he was found out by the governor, he went to Kufah where he already had followers working against the caliphate. First establishing himself as a pious man he started his mischievous activities again. The governor, Saee bins Al-As (r.a) took notice of him and he became a suspect even in eyes of sober and noble people. He left for Sryia, leaving behind strong followers.

    In Syria, he didn’t have much luck and had he moved to Egypt. He made his love for the Prophet (s)’s family and support of Ali (r.a) the main plank of his propaganda. He easily found followers because of the tension between the people and the governor and problems with African Berbers and Caesar. He instructed his followers in other places to continuously write letters of complaint against the governors of Al-Madinah, directing them at Uthman (r.a). Malik Ashatar and Yazid bin Qais jointly marched out of Kufah to Jara’ah near Qadisiyah. Qa’qa bin Amr (r.a) had arrested Yazid but let him go when repented but Qa’qa (r.a) couldn’t stop their joint forces.

    In 34 AH:

    Uthman (r.a) ordered all governors to be present during Hajj and gave audience to the public to bring their complaints so the governors can address them but no one came forward. An inquiry into riots and disruptions found they were all whimsical and unfounded. By force they had their governor removed and Abu Musa Ash’ari (r.a) placed as governor of Kufah. He called people back to unity and they all did except the followers of Abdullah bin Saba. All his followers from all places flooded Madinah with poisonous letters with sole mission of arousing people against the Caliph.

    In 35 AH:

    As governors started to leave, Mu’awiyah requested Uthman (r.a) to go with him as his life may be in danger; he also offered to send his army to protect Uthman (r.a). Both were turned down and then he requested Ali, Talhah and Zubair (r.a) to provide protection to Uthman (r.a). Abdullah bin Saba deceivingly won a few Companions and many Muslim soldiers to his side. His party was divided into 3 groups, each supporting their own candidate from Ali, Talhah and Zubair (r.a) as the next Caliph. He held back his support for Ali (r.a) and let the disunity continue.

    A group of 1,000 were sent pretending to be on hajj. Slowly all parties left their cities under pretense of Hajj with the mission of either deposing or killing the Caliph. The supporters of Talhah (r.a) halted in Dhu Khushub, those of Zubair (r.a) at A’was, and those of Ali (r.a) at Dhul-Marwah. Talhah’s main supporters were from Basrah while those of Ali and Zubair (r.a) were from Kufah and Egypt. They presented themselves to Ali, Zubair, Talhah and Mothers of the believers with the purpose of their arrival but all of them deplored their intentions and ordered them to go back. Abdullah bin Saba had written forged letters in the names of Ali, Talhah, Zubair, and Mothers of the believers to their followers. Encouraged by these forged letters, the rioters found it easy to indulge in acts of plunder, massacre and killing of the caliphate. Rioters offered their allegiances but each one rejected their offer rudely.

    Rioters Rule in Al-Madinah

    Ali (r.a) left the rioters to stay in Ahja-uz-Zait while they surrounded the house of Uthman (r.a). The Caliph wrote letters to provinces for help but none could make it in time to prevent the assassination. The rioters siege his house and kept him under house arrest for 40 days while the chief of the rioters, Ghafiqi bin Harb Akki, started leading the prayers. Talhah and Zubair (r.a) closed their doors and would neither go anywhere nor meet anyone. Hasan bin Ali, Abdullah bin Zubair, Muhammad bin Talhah, and Saeed bin Al-As (r.a) were guarding the door to stop the rioters from coming in. They scaled the wall and attacked the Caliph. The group included Abdur-Rahman bin Udais, Amr bin Hamiq, Umair bin Jannabi, Sudan bin Humran, Ghafiqi and Kinanah bin Bishr who first struck Uthman (r.a) with a sword. His wife Na’ilah bin Al-Furafisah stretched her hand to stop the stroke and her were fingers cut off. He struck Uthman (r.a) second time which led to his martyrdom. Amr bin Hamiq gave him 9 wounds with a spear and Umair bin Jannabi kicked him violently more than once, causing his ribs to break. Uthman (r.a) was reading the Quran and his blood dropped on the Verse 2:137. The rioters than made a forced entry into the house of plundered all the articles that they found. This happened on Dhul-Hijjah 18, 35 AH.

    The dead body of Uthman (r.a) lay un-shrouded and unburied for 3 days. The rioters tried to obstruct the burial service but held back on intervention of Ali (r.a), Jubair bin Mut’im (r.a) led the funeral prayers and he was buried without a bath or coffin.

    The worst kind of mischief caused by the wretched Jew, Abdullah bin Saba, was the large number of letters sent to Kufah, Basrah and Egypt on behalf of Ali (r.a). These letters played a vital role in exciting people and winning them over. He plan was to assassinate Uthman (r.a) and have fingers pointed at Ali (r.a). He had joined the rioters in Madinah and when they couldn’t get anyone to take the seat of the Caliph, they drummed throughout Madinah that Ali, Talhah or Zubair be chosen Caliph by the people of Madinah in 2 days or all 3 will be killed. The people terrified came out to give support to these three. While Talhah and Zubair (r.a) refused outright, Ali (r.a) accepted it after initially refusing.

  17. #17
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    Ali bin Abu Talib (r.a)

    His lineage is Ali bin Abu Talib bin Abdul-Muttalib bin Hashim bin Abd Manaf bin Qusai bin Kilab bin Murrah bin Ka’b bin luai bin Ghalib. He’s mother was Fatimah bint Asad bin Hashim. She was the first Hashmite to be married in a Hashmite family, accepted Islam and migrated from Makkah. Ali (r.a) was cousin and son-in-law of the Prophet (s), married to his (s)’s daughter Fatima (r.a). He was the first Caliph from Banu Hashim. While migrating to Makkah, the Prophet (s) left him behind to hand over the trusts to their owners, after which he also migrated to Al-Madinah.

    He accompanied the Prophet (s) to all the battles except Taburk for he was made acting administrator of Al-Madinah during that battle. In battle of Uhud, he sustained 16 wounds and during battle of Khaibar he was given the standard of Islam with the prophecy that the standard-bearer would conquer Khaibar. Ali (r.a) said, “you are leaving me behind among the women and children.” The Prophet (s) said, “Are you not happy that I am leaving you behind as Musa (Moses a.s) had left Harun (Aaron a.s) except that there will be no Prophet after me.”

    The Prophet (s) once said, “Ali is friend of one who is my friend.” He added, “Allah loves one who loves Ali and shows enmity to one who is th enemy of Ali.” The Prophet (s) also reported to have said, “I have been ordered to ove 4 persons.” When inquired by the Companions, he said, “They are Ali, Abu Dhar, Miqdad and Salman Farisi.”

    Bai’ah of Caliphate

    A week after the martyrdom of Uthman bin Affan (r.a), Bai’ah (oath of allegiance) was taken on Dhul-Hijjah 25, 35 Ah at the hands of Ali (r.a). The rioters and murderers of Uthman (r.a) forced the people of Madinah to take Bai’ah and when the people went to Ali (r.a) to do that he said it’s not enough unless Companions of the Badr accept him as Caliph. So they were brought in and they took the Bai’ah and then they brought Talhah and Zubair (r.a) who were forced to take Bai’ah at the sword of Malik Ashtar, one of the leaders of the rioters. They took the Bai’ah on the condition that orders and actions be taken set by limits of the Quran and the Sunnah and the Qisas (retaliation) from the murderers of Uthman (r.a) be taken.

    When Na’ilah (r.a), the wife of the Uthman (r.a) was asked to name the murderers, she gave the physical description of two of them but failed to tell their names. When asked about Muhammad bin Abu Bakr (r.a), she said that he came in but left before the assassination. Some people from Banu Umayyah collected cut off fingers of Na’ilah (r.a) and bloodstained clothes and went to Syria to meet Mu’awiyah bin Abu Sufyan (r.a).

    Three days after assuming charge of the caliphate, Ali (r.a) asked the people of Kufah, Basrah and Egypt to go back but Abdullah bin Saba (the Jew) refused his orders and most rioters took his side as well. Talha and Zubair (r.a) requested Ali (r.a) to do the same but he grew suspicious of them and didn’t allow it. On the 4th day Ali 9r.a) deposed all the governors of Uthman (r.a). Mughirah bin Shu’bah (r.a), close relative of Ali (r.a), advised him alone first and again with help of Abdullah bin Abbas (r.a) but with luck. Seeing that Ali (r.a) didn’t list to either of them, he left Al-Madinah for Makkah.

    A letter was sent to Mu’awiyah to take the Bai’ah and 3 months no reply came. Then Mu’awiyah sent his emissary Qabisah Absi accompanied by Jarir bi Abdullah with a letter addressed to Ali (r.a), when Ali (r.a) opened it he found it empty. The emissary said, “Nobody will pledge support to you. I have seen 60,000 souls weeping over the bloodstained shirt of Uthman bin Affan. They have also put the shirt on the grand mosque of Damascus to provoke the people.”

    Preparations of the Mother of Believers in Makkah

    Ali (r.a) got ready to invade Syria to punish the Syrians but he postponed it upon hearing that Makkans were making preparations against him. At this time Talhah and Zubair (r.a) sought permission to go to Makkah to perform Umrah. Aishah (r.a) had returned to Makkah on hearing the news of Uthman’s martyrdom. She said to the people, “By Allah Uthman has been killed without any fault and I shall take revenge on his behalf. It is unfortunate that people collecting from outskirts of the cities and forests, and the slaves of Al-Madinah opposed Uthman simply because he had appointed governors from our youths, although his predecessors had also done this. When rioters failed to establish their claim, they rose against Uthman and committed a breach of trust. They shed the blood declared prohibited by Allah the Almighty; they committed bloodshed in that city of Allah the Almighty had made the place of migration for His Messenger (r.a), and did it in the month hostilities are forbidden and plundered property unlawfully. By Allah even a finger of Uthman is superior to the entire world. Uthman is free from blame they have put on him.”

    Battle Array

    The governor of Makkah, Abdullah bin Amir Hadrami, was appointed by Uthman (r.a) and hearing this speech she vowed to take revenge for Uthman’s blood. Hearing this, all of Banu Ummayyah rose up. When Talhah and Zubair (r.a) reached Makkah, they were inquired about their intentions and then informed of what was going on. They readily joined the cause. The army of Aisha (r.a) consisting of 1,500 marched to Basrah and more people joined along with the way, making the numbers rise to 3,000. Upon arriving at Basrah they expressed their intentions but the governor of Basrah, Uthman bin Hunaif, opposed the plan and so battle lines were drawn. Hukaim bin Jabalah attacked the army of Aisha (r.a) but he was killed and Basrah captured by Talha and Zubair (r.a) with the governor taken as captive. Aisha (r.a) freed him and he ran to Ali (r.a) to give full details of the account.

    Ali (r.a) took his army to deal with this. Abdullah bin Saba, the Jew and Hypocrite, also joined the army with his followers. Ali (r.a) invited people of Kufah to help him fight and they refused, he sent people 3 times till they finally agreed. The number of people of Kufar to join was 9,000. He marched the next day with the intention of making peace and not war and asked those to keep away who had surrounded the house of Uthman bin Affan (r.a). Abdullah bin Saba grew worry of this and had consultations. He had around 2-2,500 followers while Ali (r.a)’s army was 20,000 strong and Zubair and Talhah (r.a)’s was 30,000 strong. He decided to follow closely to stir up trouble.

    Battle of Jamal (camel)

    When both armies came face to face, both sides kept silent for 3 days awaiting the result of ongoing peace talks. On the 3rd day the peace document was decided and to be written and signed the next morning. Abdullah bin Saba and his party could not do anything in this time to create mischief. They went into emergency meeting and decided to talk both armies making it appear like the one attacked the other. Military commanders on both sides were unaware of what led to the battle but both sides made sure not to chase the fleeing soldiers nor attack the wounded nor seize the property of the opponent. Upon the suggestion of Ka’b bin sur, Aisha (r.a) mounted a camel and went to the battle in hopes that her presence would hold back the soldiers but it only motivated them more to fight.

    The Prophet saw 'Ali and Zubair one day laughing together, and he asked Ali if he loved Zubair. Ali replied: "How could I not love him since he is my nephew and co-religionist." The Prophet asked Zubair the same question, who gave a similar response. The Prophet then told Zubair that he would fight 'Ali, and that he would be the oppressor. So in the Battle of Jamal, when Ali and Zubair, in opposing camps came face to face. 'Ali reminded Zubair of the incident, and Zubair recalled, and said that he had forgotten, and he immediately left the battle field. Ahnaf bin Qais from Basrah was lying with in a neutral zone with a large number of men and when Zubair (r.a) passed by them, Amr bin Al-Jurmuz followed him and killed him when he was prostrating in prayer. When he went to Ali (r.a) with the news, seeing the Zubair (r.a)’s sword in his hand, Ali (r.a) said, “O tyran! This is the sword which had guarded the Prophet (s) for long.” Hearing this, the assassin committed suicide.

    Zubair and Talhah (r.a) kept themselves apart from the battle from the beginning but small chieftains of various clans were firm in fighting on behalf of Aishah (r.a) without knowing her real intentions of peace. Her troops were under the impression that Ali (r.a) had deceived them by his sneak attack after making peace negotiations and people of Basrah believed in the rumor that Ali (r.a) planned to kill their m en and enslave their women and children. As are result of these rumors, misgivings and mischief of Abdulalh bin Saba and his party, more than 10,000 Muslims gave their lives for no cause. Ali (r.a ) ordered his men to attack the camel of Aisha (r.a) as its fall would bring the battle to an end. In the evening Ali (r.a) had Muhammad bin Abu Bakr (r.a) take his sister Aisha (r.a) to Basrah and entrusted her to Saffiyah bint Al-Harith bin Abu Talhah. Ali (r.a) performed funeral prayer on all slain and buried them.

    More Mischief of the Saba Sect

    The followers of Abdullah bin Saba started criticizing and reproaching Ali (r.a) openly following the ending of the battle. They had grown hostile simply because Ali (r.a) had forbidden plunder of goods and property. His counseling fell on deaf ears until one day they disappeared from Basrah. They had been the greatest supporters of Ali (r.a) and after battle of Basrah they couldn’t’ inflict any more harm or loss to Islam by supporting Ali (r.a), so they turned against him to continue working against Islam. This same group consisting of the Muslim-like Jews and anti-Islamic elements later rose in the guise of the Khawarij. They rounded all the ruffians from Arab and Iraq areas and proceeded to Sajastan to set against Ali (r.a) all the Persian provinces one by one so that he would not be able to manage the affairs of the state peacefully. Ali (r.a) sent Abdur-Rahman bin Jurw Tai with a detachment but he was martyred and so Ribi’i bin Kas was sent with detachment of 4,000 who defeated them. The opportunist of Saba joined Ali’s army to take advantage of Siffan battle.

    Ali (r.a) made Kufah his capital and shifted there from Al-Madinah. Madinah was a suitable capital during the caliphate of the previous Caliphs but Kufar was better suited for Ali (r.a)’s time and situation. It was near to Damascus and spread its shadow of influence up to the Persian provinces.

    The rioters and murderers of Uthman (r.a) joined Abdullah bin Saba as a result of his great efforts and became to be called the party of Abdullah bin Saba. Large number of Muslims joined out of their gullibility and the real number of close followers were very small. They mislead the majority and deceived them. But when they turned against Ali (r.a), many among the rioters severed their relations with the party.


    This battle took place between Ali (r.a) ‘s forces and Mu’awiyah (r.a)’s forces. The history and facts of it vary between Shiite and Sunni. The Shiite made the Mu’awiyah (r.a) and his forces look like the bad guys with in accurate information.

    Ali instructed his men to not attack Syrians unless they were attacked by them. Ashtar was heading the arm on Ali (r.a)’s side while Abul-A’war was on Syrian side. The first day of the battle passed in silence. By evening Abdul-A’war attacked but they separated shortly after. Next day they fought till noon and both sides started retreating when Ashtar launched a sudden attack. Next day, Ali (r.a) appeared on the scene as did Mu’awiyah (r.a). Ali (r.a) stopped fighting and ordered Ahstar to capture the banks of Euphrates for water but Mu’awiyah had already captured it. He was asked to let the other side have water and allowed it after hesitance and consultations. [Note: The dispute over the water seems to be incorrect. Euphrates is not a tank or pool but rather a large river stretching thousands of miles and so the army of both sides could stop at any point and take water from it.]

    Both sides kept silent for next 2 days and on third day Ali (r.a) sent a messenger to ask Mu’awiyah (r.a) to stop fighting and take the Bai’ah. When peace talks failed, fighting resumed again. There were duels leading on for days and small clashes between chiefs of small parties while the main army on both side stood back and watched. This went on for a month and then month of Muharram came and both sides stopped fighting for the month and peace talks were started again. With no progress with peace talks, the battle resumed again in Safar. The battle went on for a week. According to Tabari and Baihaqi the martyrs on Al’s side were double of Mu’waiyah’s side. There were 40,000 dead from Ali (r.a)’s army and 20,000 from Mu’awiyah (r.a)’s army.

    According to the Shiite, during last days of the battle the battle went on throughout the night. When the Syrians were facing defeat, they were told to take out Qurans and put them on their spears and raise them to call to judge by the book. [Note: The details about the last part of the battle, especially the complete submission of the Syrian army, and the raising of the Quran on spears are false fabrications. The following narrations testify to this:

    The Prophet (s) had told Ali (r.a) and Fatimah (r.a) to mention say Subhan’Allah, Alhamdu lillah and Allahu Akbar 33 times every night before bed and that it is better than owning a slave. Ali (r.a) mentioned that he never stopped doing that, even during the night of Siffan. Many narrations support this point and thus the fighting was stopped during the night of Siffan and people got a chance to rest and sleep.

    As for the proposal of the Quran, many narrations support to the facts:

    1. The proposal was presented by Amr bin Al-As (r.a) to make the Quran judge was not to cheat the Iraqi people but to stop Muslims from more bloodshed.
    2. The proposal wasn’t presented such that people unexpectedly pulled Quran from their clothes to raise on the spears. A man took the Quran to Ali (r.a) in a diplomatic way. This is supported by Musnad Ahmad and An-Nasa’i.
    3. Ali (r.a) did not term the proposal as cheating or fraud nor did his army forced him to accept it. Rather he accepted readily and freely and praised Mu’awiyah (r.a) for it.
    4. The army, especially the learned men, did not force Ali (r.a) accept the proposal but rather came with swords in their hands to seek permission to continue fighting.
    5. Considering the narrations of Musnad Ahmad and An-Nasa’i, it becomes clear that at time of the proposal there was no fighting going on, and fighting had stopped the night before and preparations were being made in the morning for fighting when the proposal came.

  18. #18
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    In order to judge by the Quran, two arbitrators were chosen, Amr bin Al-As (ra.a) and Abu Musa Ash’ari (r.a). following this the two armies moved back to their cities awaiting the decision of the arbitrators. After six months the arbitrators will come with 400 men from each side to Adhruh and announce their decision.

    Some people approached Ali (r.a) and asked him to attack the Syrian army instead of going back to Kufah. Ali (r.a) declined stating that it would be a breach of promise after writing the declaration. There grew tension in Ali (r.a)’s army dividing it into smaller groups. From these groups, two were the strongest, one completely opposing Ali (r.a) and another praising him beyond all limits and in competition with the other group. The opposing group came to be called Khawarij while the second one the Shiite.

    The Khawarij consisting of 12,000 men separated themselves from Ali (r.a)’s army and settled in Haruara. They chose Abdullah bin Al-Kawa the Imam of prayers and Shabath bin Ribi’I the commander. They also declared that Bai’ah is meant for Allah only and there is no caliph or ruler in Islam and all matters should be done in mutual consultation. Ali (r.a) went to them and talked some sense into them asked them to come back to Basrah and see what decision is made after 6 months.

    The details presented in the book by the compiler and other historians regarding the selection of the arbitrators and the decision have been based on Shiite narratives and are full of doubts and faults. It’s hard to imagine the arbitrators had be so negligent to do nothing for 6 months and then announce their decisions after a short conversation between the two prior to the announcement as mentioned in the book. The two arbitrators had reached a compact decision after their sincere efforts of 6 months and after collecting opinions of the nation. This decision was also announced bu the documentation of the decision has been concealed or destroyed in such a way that no trace of it exist. In its place, fabricated story has been presented providing relief for Ali (r.a) and placing the blame on the Syrians and arbitrators. The original decision can be extracted as:

    Because Ali took the Bai’ah in doubtful atmosphere; kept with him the murderers of Uthman; claimed himself to be the rightful caliph and fought everyone who denied his Bai’ah, but didn’t agree to take Qisas (retaliation) from the murderers, although it was an obligation on him, so he should be removed from caliphate and prevented to use the sword as caliph. Areas under his rule will remain so until a new caliph is chosen.

    Mu’awiyah was neither a caliph nor he claimed caliphate. Areas under him were under his governship and will remain so until new caliph is chosen.
    After restoration of normalcy, body of distinguished Muslims, including Ali and Mu’awiyah, should select a suitable and impartial person freely as caliph.
    New caliph will be responsible for investigation and Qisas of the murder of Uthman, so Mu’awiyah should remain quite about his claim to Qisas until new caliph is chosen.

    First three points of the decision can be found in slightly altered form in all history books while the 4th point is proved by the fact that after that, Mu’awiyah (r.a) remained quiet about this claims regarding Qisas of Uthman (r.a). third point also is verified by a narration of Ibn Umar (r.a) in Sahih Bukhari ( 4108, Fath Al-Bari 7/403)

    The Khawarij

    Hearing the decision of the arbitrators the Khawarij started giving Ali (r.a) trouble. They then decided to move to the hills from Basrah and made Abdullah bin Wahb their chief. Other’s took Bai’ah at his hands and decided to move to Mada’in since they thought they could capture it easily. They halted at Nahawan and started seeking supporters. Their supporters grew to 25,000 as they issued an edict of blasphemy against Ali (r.a).

    Battle of Naharwan

    Ali (r.a) made all efforts to bring the Khawarij back to righteousness but all was in vain. They wanted him to come back to Islam by declaring himself blasphemous as they did otherwise they will wage Jihad against him and consider him a Kafir (disbeliever). They started killing all those that would disagree with them. Ali (r.a) sent several Companions one by one to them but they refused to listen. Finally he went and talked to them but that didn’t work either. Finally an army was sent after them with the announcement that those who return with fighting, those who go to Kufah or Mada’in will find peace. And many did that till the Khawarij had less than 1/3 of the men lift. Ali (r.a) launched attack against them and killed them all. All the prominent chieftains were killed except 9 who managed to flee.

    Egypt and other Provinces

    Syrians accepted Mu’awiyah (r.a) as the Caliph. He started corresponding with Mu’awiyah bin Hudaij and those who opposed Muhammad bin Abu Bakr (r.a), the governor of Egypt. They sought his help and he sent 6,000 troops. Muhamhamd bin Abu Bakr (r.a) sent a letter to Ali (r.a) requesting help. He tried to rouse people to part in Egyptian campaign but could muster only 2,000 troops. He sent them under Malik bin Ka’b but had them turn back when he got the news that Muhammad bin Abu Bakr (r.a) was defeated. Muhammad bin Abu Bakr (r.a) had sent his own 2,000 troops to fight but they were either killed or fled from the field, leaving him alone to fight the Syrians. He took refuge in the house of Jabalah bin Masruq but the house was surrounded and he was taken out and killed by Mu’awiyah bin Hudaij and then put in the skin of a dead donkey and burned.

    After the conquest of Egypt, Mu’awiyah (r.a) started expanding to take over Basrah, Mada’in, Anbar and by 40 AH, he had Yemen, Hijaz, Syria, Palestine, and Egypt under his control. Ali (r.a)’s caliphate was confined to Iraq and Iran only. Both had agreed to leave Makkah and Madinah outside their rule.

    Dangerous plan of the Khawarij

    As mentioned previously, only 9 people from the Khawarij survived the battle of Naharwan. These were chieftains who tried to spread out in various parts of Persia and launched propaganda and conspiracies against Ali (r.a) to for an attack but it proved fruitless. They came to Iraq and Hijaz and started seeking listeners. After they found support, Abdur-Rahman bin Muljam Muradi the Egyptian, Burak bin Abdullah Tamimi, and Amr bin Bakr Tamimi Sa’di each agreed to kill Ali, Mu’awiyah and Amr bin Al-As (r.a) on Ramadan 16. When the time came, Burak bin Abdullah Tamimi entered the mosque of Damascus and hit Mu’awiyah with his sword during Fajr prayer. He then fled but was caught and killed. Mu’awiyah (r.a) didn’t receive and fatal blow and so he was able to recover after a few days and then to practice caution he put guards inside the mosque. Amr bin Bakr struck Kharijah bin Abu Habibah bin Amr and killed him mistaking him to be Amr bin Al-As r.a) during Fajr prayer in Egypt. Amr bin Al-As (r.a) was ill that morning and was absent Kharijah was leading the prayer in his place. The same day Abdur-Rahman bin Muljam attacked Ali (r.a) in Kufah Mosque during Fajr prayer and left him critically injured. He died 2 days later on Saturday, Ramadan 17. Ibn Muljam had help from Shabib bin Bajrah and Wardan. They came the night before Fajr and hid behind the door and attacked Ali (r.a) when he came in. Ibn Muljam struck Ali (r.a) ‘s forehead, causing a deep injury. A Hadrami caught Shabib but he slipped away and disappeared, Wardan fled to fled to his house but was caught there and put to death, and ibn Muljam was caught in the Mosque. Ali (r.a) said, “He is to be killed if I succumb to my injuries, in case I recover, I shall deal with him.” He also instructed others to kill the assassin by way of Qisas and no one else. Following Ali (r.a)’s death, Ibn Muljam was brought before Hasan (r.a) and he killed the assassin with one stroke of his sword.

    Hasan (r.a) led the funeral prayer for Ali (r.a). As for the place of burial, that is in dispute with various narrations but in reality the grave still remains traceless to this day. The reason for his burial at a unknown location was because of the Khawarij menace.

    Ali (r.a) married 9 wives at different times had had 14 sons and 17 daughters. They were:

    Fatimah (r.a), who gave birth to Hasan and Husain (r.a), Zainab and Umm Kulthum (r.a)
    Umm-un-Nabiyin bint Haram Kalabiah, who gave birth to Abbas, Ja’far, Abdullah and Uthman (r.a)
    Laila bint Mas’ud bin Khalid, who gave birth to Ubaidullah and Abu Bakr (r.a)
    Asma’ bint Umais, who gave birth to Muhammad Al-Asghar and Yahya

    The above 8 brothers were martyred fighting with Hussan (r.a) in Karbala.

    Umamah bint Abul-As bin Ar-rab bin AbdulUzza bin Abd Shams, daughter of Zainab (r.a) the daughter of the Prophet (s), gave birth to Muhammad Al-Ausat
    Khaulah bint Ja’far, was from Banu Hanifah, gave birth to Muhammad Al-Akbar aka Muhammad bin Al-Hanafiyah
    Sabah bint Rabi’ah, gave birth to Umar bin Ali, Ruqayyah bint Ali
    Umm Saeed bint Urwah bint Mas’ud Thaqafiyah, gave birth to Umm Hasan, Ramlat-ul-Kubra, Umm Kulthum Sughra
    Mukhbi’ah bint Imra-ul-Qais bin Adi Kalbiyah, gave birth to a daughter who died young

    There were other daughters too but their names are unknown. Ali (r.a)’s progeny came from Hasan, Husain, Muhammad bin Al-Hanafiyah, Abbas and Ja’far (r.a) while the others did not survive long.

    He was the last in the line of those commanded respect throughout the world of Islam. None after him could fight evil and promote good. He was never reluctant to speak the truth. The majority he had to deal with were crafty, shrewd and expedient. During his tenure number of Companions decreased a lot. Many had passed away while others moved to Kufah, Basrah, Damascus, Egypt, Yemen, Makkah and Al-Madinah.

  19. #19
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    Jan 2009


    Hasan (r.a)

    Hasan bin Ali bin Abu Talib (r.a) was the last of the Rightly-Guided Caliphs. He was born in middle of Sha’ban 3 AH, was named by the Prophet (s) with a name that no one has in Age of Ignorance. He resembled the Prophet (s). He had great dislike for disturbance and bloodshed. He had performed Hajj 25 times on foot while he had a camel. He handed over the caliphate to Mu’awiyah (r.a) in Rabi’ Al-Awwal 41 AH. He died in Rabi’Al-Awwal 50 AH, suspected to be by poisoned food.

    He was buried next his mother Fatimah (r.a) , leaving behind 9 sons and 6 daughters.

    Events during the Caliphate of Hasan (r.a)

    Hearing the martyrdom of Ali (r.a), Mu’awiyah (r.a) adopted the appellation of Amir-ul-Mu’min (Chief of the believers). Although Syrians had already given him Bai’ah, he renewed it anyways. He set out towards Kufah with 60,000 troops to take it over. Hearing this Hasan (r.a) set off from Kufah with 40,000 troops. He sent 12,000 with Qais bin Sa’id (r.a) as vanguard. Hasan (r.a) stopped at Madai’n for a day to give rest to animals. There he said to the people who took Bai’ah from him that he harbors no enmity against any in East to West nor hate or detest anyone. Hearing this the Khawarij and hypocrites spread the rumor that Hasan (r.a) wanted to make peace with Mu’awiyah and issued a verdict of blasphemy against him. The army was divided up because of this and people surrounded him and started calling him kafir and attacking him and took away the mantle from his shoulder and plundered the camp. Hasan (r.a) hurried to Rabi’ah and Hamadan clans on horseback and called on them for help to which they responded and removed the detractors from the camp.

    Hasan and Mu’awiyah (r.a) were both ready to make peace with Hasan ready to quit his office of caliphate. Hasan (r.a) sent Abdullah bin Amr to Mu’awiyah (r.a) with his conditions but Abdullah bin Amr presented totally different and difficult conditions before Mu’awiyah (r.a). Mu’awiyah (r.a) accepted it readily and signed a blank paper to give to Hasan (r.a) to write down whatever his conditions where. The peace treaty dictated by Hasan (r.a) was as:

    “The peace document is being written between Hasan bin Ali bin Abu Talib and Mu’awiyah bin Abu Sufyan. Both of them agree on the following:

    The office of the caliphate is handed over to Mu’awiyah bin Abu Sufyan. The Muslims will be at liberty to elect a Caliph of their own choice after Mu’awiyah. The Muslims as a whole will remain safe from the hands and tongue of Mu’awiyah and he will treat all with grace. He will not stand in the way of Ali’s relatives, and the supporter’s of Hasan and Husain bin Ali will not suffer at his hands. Both these brothers and their relatives will be free to go anywhere and settle at any place. Mu’awiyah and his governors will not have the right to force them to carry out their orders by treating them as their subjects. Mu’awiyah is bound to keep sending the tribute from Ahwaz to Hasan bin Ali, and the entire existing possessions of the public treasury of Kufah will be within the rights of Hasan bin Ali and he will be free to spend it as will. Mu’awiyah should prefer Banu Hashim in giving gifts and rewards.”

    Mu’awiyah (r.a) went to the Grand Mosque of Kufah and took the Bai’ah Hasan (r.a) and the people of Kufah. Husain (r.a) had refused to take the Bai’ah and when Mu’awiyah (r.a) pressed them, Hasan (r.a) told him not to insist for his pride was dearer to him than taking the Bai’ah. Mu’awiyah (r.a0 kept silent and Husain (r.a) took the Bai’ah later.

    The peace treaty fulfilled the prophecy of the Prophet (s) about Hasan (r.a): “This son of mine is a chief and Allah the Almighty will bring about peace between two groups of the Muslims through him.”

    ~ END OF VOLUME 1 ~

  20. #20
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    Join Date
    Jan 2009



    Amir Mu’awiyah (r.a)
    Yazid bin Mu’awiyah - Karbala Incident
    Muawiya bin Yazid
    Marwan bin Hakam


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