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Thread: Islamic Months

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    Default Islamic Months

    The Islamic calendar is based on the year prophet Muhammad () and his fellow Muslims (known as Sahabah, the Companions) emigrated to Madinah in the year 622 C.E. (Christian Era). The emigration took place after thirteen years of persecutions by the disbelievers of Makkah. By the command of God, the Prophet left the city with his companion Abu Bakr Siddique (R.A.) and escaped a death threat by the disbelievers. The event marks the beginning of a second phase of the Islamic movement. It is the phase when Madinah became the center of an Islamic state.

    The Islamic calendar is lunar. Each month must begin with the evening when the new moon is sightable by the unaided naked eye. Muslims are obligated to sight the crescent in every country. Different countries may begin the year at different days based on their own sightings. The calendar is called Hijri calendar. The Arabic word Hijrah means emigration.

    Allah says in the Qur'an:

    "The number of months in the sight of Allah is twelve (in a year) - so ordained by Him the day He created the heavens and the earth...." (9:36).

    "It is He Who made the sun to be a shining glory, and the moon to be a light of beauty, and measured out stages for it, that you might know the number of years and the count of time. Allah did not create this except in truth and righteousness. And He explains His signs in detail, for those who understand" (10:5).


    And in his final sermon before his death, the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) said, among other things, "With Allah the months are twelve; four of them are holy; three of these are successive and one occurs singly between the months of Jumaada and Sha'ban."

    Islamic months begin at sunset of the first day, the day when the lunar crescent is visually sighted. The lunar year is approximately 354 days long, so the months rotate backward through the seasons and are not fixed to the Gregorian calendar. The months of the Islamic year are:



    1. Muharram ("Forbidden" - it is one of the four months during which it is forbidden to wage war or fight)

    Meaning: The word "Muharram" means "Forbidden." Even before Islam, this month was always known as a scared month in which all unlawful acts were forbidden, prominently the shedding of blood.

    Blessing:
    There are many bounties of this month, especially on 10th of Muharram.

    10th of Muharram: On this day he who spends more lavishly for the sake of his family members, Allah Ta'aalaa will bestow blessing upon the sustenance of the following year.

    Abu Qataada (R.A.) has related that the Prophet has reported to have said, It is my thought that by fasting on the 10th of Muharram Allah Ta'aalaa will pardon the sins of the past year. (Tirmizi)

    Events:


    Prior To Islam

    1. Prophet Adam (pbuh) was born and entered the Paradise on 10th of Muharram.
    2. Prophet Ayyub (pbuh) was cured from his illness.
    3. A way was made in the sea for Bani Israel.
    4. Prophet Suleman (pbuh) was ordained King.
    5. The oceans and heavens were created. (Tanbihul-Gaafileen)


    During Islam:


    1. Hadhrat Hussain (R.A.) was martyred in this month.

    2. Shaykhain Tirmizi & Haakim has narrated from Anas (R.A) that the following verse: "Allah may forgive thee of thy sins that which is past and that which is to come . . ." (Qur'an Al-Fath 48:2)
    was revealed on the 10th of Muharram.
    3. The Prophet Muhammed went to defeat Bani Muhaarin and Bani Tha'laba (Tribes of Bani Gatfan) in the year 4 A.H. (Asahhus-siyar)

    4. Qiyaamah will take place on the 10th of Muharram.



    2. Safar ("Empty" or "Yellow")

    Meaning: This word means "whistling of the wind". When this name was assigned to this month, it was probably a windy time of the year. As mentioned earlier, most of the months were named according to weather conditions at the time. However, since they are based on the moon, the months shift about 11 days every year. So, the seasons do not necessarily correspond to the name of the month anymore.

    Misconception:

    This time of the year was considered to be cursed as many catastrophes and calamities took place. However this belief has been proven to be false and totally without foundation (absurd).
    This can also be confirmed by the following hadeeth.
    Hadhrat Jaabir (R.A.) has said that, "I have heard the Prophet saying, the descending of illness and evil superstition befalling in the month of Safar is untrue." (Muslim)


    Events:


    1. The Battle of Abwaa took place on 12th of Safar in the year 2 A.H.
    2. The Battle of Khaibar took place in the year 7 A.H.
    3. Hadhrat Ali (R A ) married Prophet daughter Hadhrat Fatima (R.A.) in the latter days of Safar 2 A.H.
    4. Khubaib Ibn Adey (R.A.) was martyred in Safar in the year 4 A.H. in Makkah.
    5. Zaid Ibn Dathina (RA) was martyred in this month in the year 4 A.H. in Makkah.



    3. Rabia Awal ("First spring")


    Meaning: First month of spring. It seems it was spring time when the name was given.

    Events:


    1. The Holy Prophet was born in this month as mercy for all and departed from this world 63 years later.

    2. The Holy Prophet migrated from Makkah to Madinah Munawwarah.
    3. Battle of Buwaat took place in the year 2 A.H.
    4. Battle of Saf'vaan took place in the year 2 A.H.
    5. Abu Bakr's(R. A) daughter, Asma (R.A.) was born 6 years before Prophecy.
    6. Ruqayyah (R. A.) the daughter of the beloved Prophet was born 7 years before Prophecy.
    7. Abu Bakr (RA.) was appointed Caliph.
    8. Hadhrat Umme Kuithum was married in this month to the third Caliph; Uthman (R.A.) in 3 A.H.
    9. Wife of the Holy Prophet Zainab (RA.) passed away in the year 4 A.H.
    10. Ibrahim (RA.) the son of Maaria Qibtiya & of the Holy Prophet passed away in the year 10 A.H.


    4. Rabia Thani
    ("Second spring")

    Meaning: The second month of spring.

    Events:
    1. Battle of Furu' from Buhraan took place in 3 A.H Sariyyah-Battle in which the Holy Prophet did not take part in, instead he consigned one of his Companions as the colonel. The consigned: Sariyyah Ali Ibn Abi Talib in the 9th Hijri. Sariyyah-Ibn Alqamah Mujaazziz Mudlejee.

    2. Hadrat Khwaja Nizamuddin- 18th Rabi-ul-Akhir: 725 Hijri. Hadrat Sheikh Abdul Qadir Jilanee- 11th Rabi-ul-akhir: 561 Hijri passed away at the age of 90.


    5. Jumaada Awal ("First freeze")

    Meaning: The first month of summer. "Jumada" means dry.

    Events:


    1. The Battle "Moota" took place in 8 A.H. A war against infidels in which th Holy Prophet did not participate. Th battle is named after a famous city in Syria (Moota). Hadrat Zaid Ibn Haritha (R.A) was the first appointed General by the Holy Prophet
    2. In the same Battle Hadrat Khalid ibn Walid (fourth general of the Battle of Moota) was proclaimed by the Holy Prophet as being "one of the swords of Allah".
    3. The Holy Prophet married his first beloved wife; Hadrat Khadijah (R.A) 15 years prior to Prophecy.

    4. Deaths:


    Hadrat Zaid Ibn Haritha (R.A) met martyrdom in 8 A.H
    Hadrat Ja'far Ibn Abi Talib (R.A.) met martyrdom in 8 A.H.
    Hadrat Abdullah Ibn Rawaahah met martyrdom in 8 A.H.
    Hadrat Abdullah Ibn Uthman (R.A.) passed away.
    The Holy Prophet grandfather Abdul Muttalib passed away 32 years prior to prophency.


    6. Jumaada Thani ("Second freeze")

    Meaning: Second month of summer.

    Events:
    1. Battle of Salaasil took place in 8 A.H.
    2. Abu Salama (R.A) died in the year 4 A.H.


    7. Rajab ("To respect" - this is another holy month when fighting is prohibited)

    Meaning: From Rajaba "to respect". Another one of the sacred months in which fighting was forbidden prior to Islam. This was one of the most respected months for the Arabs. It is also called Rajab al Fard. Fard means alone; because the other three sacred months come one after another, except this month. It comes alone not like the other 3 consecutive sacred months.

    Events:


    1. The Holy Prophet ascended to Heaven on the 27th of Rajab on either Sunday or Monday (Mi'raaj).
    2. Hadhrat Bilal Ibn Haritha (R.A) brought a congregation of four hundred men named Banu Muzeena in the presence of the Holy Prophet . They all embraced Islam and became followers of the Holy Prophet in the year 5 A.H
    3. The battle of Tabook took place in the year 9 A.H. This was the last battle in which the Holy Prophet participated.
    4. The second Oath of Aqabah took place in Rajab, 12 A.H.


    5. Deaths:


    Imam Abu Hanifa (R.A) passed away on the 15th of Rajab 150 A.H.
    Imam Shafi'ee (R.A) passed away on the 14th Rajab 204 A.H.
    Imam Muslim (R.A) passed away on the 24th of Rajab 261 A.H.
    Imam Nawawee (R.A) passed away on the 14th of Rajab 677 A.H.


    8. Sha'ban ("To spread and distribute")

    Meaning: Consecutively escalating. (Undisturbed increase). Derived from the word "shu'ba", which means branch. The Arabs used to branch out during this month to look for water.

    Blessings:

    With the Arrival of the Shaban moon numerous blessings are showered upon us. Just as the initiation of rainfall begins with "pitter patter" such blessings reach us in the same accord and fashion.
    With the Beginning of Shaban blessings are initiated which progressively escalate so that by mid-Shaban the blessings have reached a considerable amount and finally such blessings reached a considerable amount and finally such blessings reach their peak by the end of Ramadan.

    For example just as a farmer prepares for a fruitful harvest by harrowing his acreage so that the soil may readily retain water, in contrast our souls are geared by the presence of such blessings in Shaban effectively preparing us for a fruitful and completely advantageous Ramadan.
    Our Holy Prophet has said, "Shaban is my month and Ramadan the month of Allah Ta'aalaa." (Daylami)


    Events:


    1. "Laila-tul Baraa'at (Night of forgiveness) the fifteenth night of Shaban.
    2. "Qibla", the direction to be adopted within salaah, was reverted back to the "Ka'aba" in Makkah (after being coverted to Baitul Muqaddas in Jerusalem for a short period of time). This took place two years after Hijraah on the 15th of Shaban.
    3. Fasting in the blessed month of Ramadan was made compulsory in the year 2 A.H. on the 25th of Shaban.
    4. Three years A.H. Hadhrat Hafsa (R.A) was joined in matrimony with the Prophet .
    5. In this very month forty two years later Hadhrat Hafsa (R.A) took leave from this world.
    6. The birth of the Prophet's grandson Hadhrat Hussain (R.A.) took place, four years on the fifth of Shaban.
    7. The battle of Banu Mustaliq took place in Shaban.
    8. During the above mentioned battle, the "Aayah of Tayammum" (Purifying with sand before salaah) was revealed, in the year 5 A.H.
    9. The daughter of the beloved Prophet Umme Kulthum (R.A.) took leave from this world, in the 9 A.H.


    9. Ramadan ("Parched thirst" - this is the month of daytime fasting)

    Meaning: Derived from "RAMADHA", literally means "intense heat". The possible reasons for this meaning:

    1. When the Islamic months were enforced the month of fasting coincided with the summer months of intense heat.
    2. The second reason which has been mentioned is that due to fasting the temperature within the stomach increases, again the element of heat is a factor behind the actual naming of RAMADAN.
    3. It has also been said that "RAMADHAA" is one of the names of Allah Ta'aalaa. If that is the case then the month has acquired the name due to the fact that Allah Ta'aalaa burns away accumulated sins and eliminates then from the list of unlawful deeds. Once again the burning sins cannonades "HEAT". However. it should be acknowledged that this reasoning is not wholly reliable.

    Blessings:

    Hadhrat Salmaan (R.A) reports that on the last day of Sha'baan the Messenger of Allah Ta'aalaa addressed then and said, "Oh people, there comes before you now a great month, a most blessed month in which lies a night more greater in virtue than 1,000 months; (LAYLATUL-QADR). It is a month in which each day should be observed by fasting, this has been made obligatory by the Almighty Allah."

    Events:
    1. Hadhrat Hasan (R.A.), Holy Prophet grandson was born on 15th of Ramadan, three years after Hijrah.
    2. Qur'an was revealed on the 27th night of Ramadan from the "Lauhe Mahfooz" (on 7th heaven) to 1st heaven.
    3. The first Battle in the Islamic History, "BATTLE OF BADR" took place on the 12th of Ramadan in year 2 A.H.
    4. Victory of Makkah took place on 18th of Ramadan in the year 8 A.H.
    5. Hadhrat Sawdah (R.A) was married in year 10 A.H. to the Holy Prophet
    6. Hadhrat Zainab Bint Khuzaima's (R.A.) marriage took place in the year 3 A.H. to the Holy Prophet .

    7. Deaths:

    i) Hadhrat Ruqayyah (R.A), Holy Prophet daughter, passed away at the young age of 23 in the year 2 A.H when the Prophet was at "Battle of Badr".
    ii) Hadhrat Khadijah (R.A), wife of the Holy prophet departed from this world on the 11th of Ramadan in the year 10 A.H.
    iii) Hadrat Fatimah (R.A) took leave from the world on a Tuesday 3rd Ramadan in the year 11 A.H. (6 months after the death of Holy Prophet she was only 29 years old.)
    iv) Hadrat Abbas (R.A.) the Holy Prophet uncle passed away on a Friday 12th Ramadan in the year 32 A.H at the age of 88
    v) Hadrat Ali (R.A.) the Prophet son-in-law departed from this world on Friday 27th Ramadan, age 57 in the year 40 A.H.
    vi) Hadhrat Saffiyah (R.A.) took leave from this world in the year 50 A.H., aged 60 years.
    vii) Hadhrat Aa'ishah (R.A.) was 65 years old when she departed in the year 58 A.H.



    10. Shawwal ("To be light and vigorous")

    Meaning: Uplift/breakage, as before Islam, Arabs believed that any marriage held in Shawwal would always turn out to be unsuccessful. Taken from the word "shala" which means "when the female camel gets pregnant". When this name was given, the female camels used to get pregnant during this time of the year.

    Blessings:


    The first day of Shawwal is Eid-Ul-Fitr, the day of festival and when all sins are forgiven as a reward for fasting and prayers in the month of Ramadan.
    Its Sunnah ( Tradition of Holy Prophet ) to fast for six days in Shawwal, as narrated in the following Hadeeth by Abu Ayyub Ansaru (R.A) that the Holy Prophet has said, "If one throughout his life keeps the fasts of Ramadan and keeps six consecutive fasts in Shawwal it will be as though he has kept a whole life time of fasts, and if one fast for six consecutive days in Shawwal it will be as though he has fasted all year round."
    (Muslim)
    Events: 1. Hadhrat Aa'ishah Siddiqah (R.A) was born in Shawwal, 4 years after Prophethood and 9 years before Hijrah.
    2. Hadhrat Aa'ishah Siddiqah (R.A.) was married to Holy Prophet in Shawwal, 10 years after Prophethood which is 3 years before Hijrah.
    3. The fight between Banu Qaynaqaa took place between the battle of Badr and Uhud, Shawwal 2 A.H. after Hijrah.
    4. The battle of Uhud also took place in Shawwaal, three years after Hijrah.
    5. Hadhrat Hussain (R.A) Holy Prophet's grandson (son of Hadhrat Fatima R.A.) was born in the month of Shawwaal 4 years after Hijrah.
    6. The Holy Prophet married Hadhrat Umme Salamah (R.A.) in Shawwal in the 4 year after Hijrah.
    7. Hadhrat Aa'ishah Siddiqah's (R.A) mother passed away in year 5 A.H.
    8. The Holy Prophet's uncle Abu Talib departed from this world in the middle of Shawwal in the year 5 A.H.
    9. Imam Bukhari (R.A.) was born on a Friday of Shawwaal in the year 194 A.H.



    11. Dhul-Qi'dah ("The month of rest" - another month when no warfare or fighting is allowed)

    Meaning: Taken from the word "qa'ada" which means to sit. This is the third sacred month in which fighting was forbidden. The people also used to stop their business activities during this month and sit and prepare for the Hajj (Pilgrimage). This is also a sacred month.

    Events:

    1. The battle of 'khandaq (trench) or Ahzab' took place in the year 5 A.H.
    2. In the year 6 A.H.-Truce of Hudaubiyah.
    3. In the year 6 A.H 'Bay'at-e-Rizwaan' (The oath of allegiance named Rizwaan).
    4. The return to Makkah for Umrah by Holy Prophet and his Companions in the year 7 A.H.



    12. Dhul-Hijjah ("The month of Hajj" - this is the month of the annual pilgrimage to Makkah, again when no warfare or fighting is allowed)

    Meaning: The month of "Hajj" (Pilgrimage). This is the last sacred month in which fighting was forbidden.

    Blessings:


    The fifth pillar of Islam "Hajj" is performed in this sacred month. The first ten days of Zul-Hijjah are the most virtuous days in this whole month, Hajj is performed amongst these ten days.

    Hadhrat Abu Haraira (R.A) reports from the Holy Prophet : "Amongst all days there are none better to engage in sole worship of Allah than in the ten days of Zul-Hijjah, To observe a fast on any of these days is equivalent to fasting throughout the year, to actively engage in prayer and worship throughout any of these nights holds such rewarding values leveling with "night of power" (Laylatul-Qadr) "Tirmizi"

    It has been stated in the Holy Qur'an, "By the dawn; By the ten nights (ie. the first ten days of the month of Zul-Hijjah), and by the even and the odd (of all the creations of Allah) and by night when it departs. There is indeed in them (the above oaths) sufficient proofs for men of understanding. (and that they should avoid all kinds of sins and disbelief)"
    Hadhrat Abi Qataadah (R.A) reports in a part narration from the Holy Prophet concerning the fast observed on the day of Arafaat: "I have full confidence in Allah for the one who observes a fast on the day of Arafaat that his previous year's sins and the proceeding year's sins are forgiven."
    (Muslim)

    Events:

    1. The Prophet performed the farewell Hajj and gave the historic sermon known as the "Farewell Sermon"
    2. Egypt was conquered by the army sent by Hadhart Umar (R.A.)
    3. Uthmaan (R.A.) was appointed the third Caliph
    4. "Bay'ate-Aqabah"
    5. Hadhrat Fatimah (R.A.) was married in this holy month to the fourth Caliph Hadhrat Ali (R.A.)

    Deaths:


    i) Hadhrat Umar (R.A.) met martydom- 27th of Zul-Hijjah in the year 26 A.H.
    ii) Hadhrat Uthmaan (R.A) was martyred- 18th Zul-Hijjah in the year 35 A.H.



    Last edited by Muslim; Dec-4-2012 at 07:06 PM.

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    The Virtues of Muharram and Fasting on 'Aashooraa

    Shaykh Saalih al-Munajjid hafidhahullaah (islamqa.com)



    Praise be to Allaah, The Lord of the Worlds, and peace and blessings be upon our Prophet Muhammad, the Seal of the Prophets and Chief of the Messengers, and upon all his family and companions.

    Allaah’s sacred month of Muharram is a blessed and important month. It is the first month of the Hijri calendar and is one of the four sacred months concerning which Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):

    “Verily, the number of months with Allaah is twelve months (in a year), so it was ordained by Allaah on the Day when He created the heavens and the earth; of them, four are sacred. That is the right religion, so wrong not yourselves therein…” [al-Tawbah 9:36]

    Abu Bakrah (may Allaah be pleased with him) reported that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said:

    “The year is twelve months of which four are sacred, the three consecutive months of Dhu’l-Qa’dah, Dhu’l-Hijjah and Muharram, and Rajab Mudar which comes between Jumaada and Sha’baan.” (Reported by al-Bukhaari, 2958).

    Muharram is so called because it is a sacred (muharram) month and to confirm its sanctity. Allaah’s words (interpretation of the meaning): “...so wrong not yourselves therein…” mean do not wrong yourselves in these sacred months, because sin in these months is worse than in other months. It was reported that Ibn ‘Abbaas said that this phrase (...so wrong not yourselves therein…) referred to all the months, then these four were singled out and made sacred, so that sin in these months is more serious and good deeds bring a greater reward.

    Qutaadah said concerning this phrase (...so wrong not yourselves therein…) that wrongdoing during the sacred months is more serious and more sinful than wrongdoing at any other time. Wrongdoing at any time is a serious matter, but Allaah gives more weight to whichever of His commands He will. Allaah has chosen certain ones of His creation. He has chosen from among the angels Messengers and from among mankind Messengers. He chose from among speech the remembrance of Him (dhikr). He chose from among the earth the mosques, from among the months Ramadaan and the sacred months, from among the days Friday and from among the nights Laylat al-Qadr, so venerate that which Allaah has told us to venerate. People of understanding and wisdom venerate the things that Allaah has told us to venerate. (Summarized from the Tafseer of Ibn Katheer, may Allaah have mercy on him. Tafseer of Surat al-Tawbah, aayah 36).

    The Virtue of observing more naafil fasts during Muharram


    Abu Hurayrah (may Allaah be pleased with him) said:

    “The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: ‘The best of fasting after Ramadaan is fasting Allaah’s month of Muharram.’ ” (reported by Muslim, 1982).

    The phrase “Allaah’s month”, connecting the name of the month to the name of Allaah in a genitive grammatical structure, signifies the importance of the month. Al-Qaari said: “The apparent meaning is all of the month of Muharram.” But it was proven that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) never fasted any whole month apart from Ramadan, so this hadeeth is probably meant to encourage increasing one’s fasting during Muharram, without meaning that one should fast for the entire month.

    It was reported that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) used to fast more in Sha’baan. It is likely that the virtue of Muharram was not revealed to him until the end of his life, before he was able to fast during this month. (Sharh al-Nawawi ‘ala Saheeh Muslim).

    Allaah chooses whatever times and places He wills

    Al-‘Izz ibn ‘Abd al-Salaam (may Allaah have mercy on him) said: “Times and places may be given preferred status in two ways, either temporal or religious/spiritual. With regard to the latter, this is because Allaah bestows His generosity on His slaves at those times or in those places, by giving a greater reward for deeds done, such as giving a greater reward for fasting in Ramadaan than for fasting at all other times, and also on the day of ‘Aashooraa’, the virtue of which is due to Allaah’s generosity and kindness towards His slaves on that day…” (Qawaa’id al-Ahkaam, 1/38).

    ‘Aashooraa’ in History


    Ibn ‘Abbaas (may Allaah be pleased with him) said:

    “The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) came to Madeenah and saw the Jews fasting on the day of ‘Aashooraa’. He said, ‘What is this?’ They said, ‘This is a righteous day, it is the day when Allaah saved the Children of Israel from their enemies, so Moosa fasted on this day.’ He said, ‘We have more right to Moosa than you,’ so he fasted on that day and commanded [the Muslims] to fast on that day.” (Reported by al-Bukhaari, 1865).

    “This is a righteous day” – in a report narrated by Muslim, [the Jews said:] “This is a great day, on which Allaah saved Moosa and his people, and drowned Pharaoh and his people.” “Moosa fasted on this day” – a report narrated by Muslim adds: “… in thanksgiving to Allaah, so we fast on this day.” According to a report narrated by al-Bukhaari: “… so we fast on this day to venerate it.” A version narrated by Imaam Ahmad adds: “This is the day on which the Ark settled on Mount Joodi, so Nooh fasted this day in thanksgiving.” “and commanded [the Muslims] to fast on that day” – according to another report also narrated by al-Bukhaari: “He said to his Companions: ‘You have more right to Moosa than they do, so fast on that day.' ”

    The practice of fasting on ‘Aashooraa’ was known even in the days of Jaahiliyyah, before the Prophet’s mission. It was reported that ‘Aa’ishah (may Allaah be pleased with her) said: “The people of Jaahiliyyah used to fast on that day…”

    Al-Qurtubi said: “Perhaps Quraysh used to fast on that day on the basis of some past law, such as that of Ibraaheem, upon whom be peace.”

    It was also reported that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) used to fast on ‘Aashooraa’ in Makkah, before he migrated to Madeenah. When he migrated to Madeenah, he found the Jews celebrating this day, so he asked them why, and they replied as described in the hadeeth quoted above. He commanded the Muslims to be different from the Jews, who took it as a festival, as was reported in the hadeeth of Abu Moosa (may Allaah be pleased with him), who said: “The Jews used to take the day of ‘Aashooraa’ as a festival [according to a report narrated by Muslim: the day of ‘Aashooraa’ was venerated by the Jews, who took it as a festival. According to another report also narrated by Muslim: the people of Khaybar (the Jews) used to take it as a festival and their women would wear their jewellery and symbols on that day].

    The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: ‘So you [Muslims] should fast on that day.’ ” (Reported by al-Bukhaari).

    Apparently the motive for commanding the Muslims to fast on this day was the desire to be different from the Jews, so that the Muslims would fast when the Jews did not, because people do not fast on a day of celebration. (Summarized from the words of al-Haafiz Ibn Hajar – may Allaah have mercy on him – in Fath al-Baari Sharh ‘ala Saheeh al-Bukhaari).

    Fasting on ‘Aashooraa’ was a gradual step in the process of introducing fasting as a prescribed obligation in Islam. Fasting appeared in three forms. When the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) came to Madeenah, he told the Muslims to fast on three days of every month and on the day of ‘Aashooraa’, then Allaah made fasting obligatory when He said (interpretation of the meaning): “… observing the fasting is prescribed for you…” [al-Baqarah 2:183] (Ahkaam al-Qur’aan by al-Jassas, part 1).

    The obligation was transferred from the fast of ‘Aashooraa’ to the fast of Ramadaan, and this one of the proofs in the field of Usool al-Fiqh that it is possible to abrogate a lighter duty in favour of a heavier duty.

    Before the obligation of fasting ‘Aashooraa’ was abrogated, fasting on this day was obligatory, as can be seen from the clear command to observe this fast. Then it was further confirmed later on, then reaffirmed by making it a general command addressed to everybody, and once again by instructing mothers not to breastfeed their infants during this fast. It was reported from Ibn Mas’ood that when fasting Ramadaan was made obligatory, the obligation to fast ‘Aashooraa’ was lifted, i.e., it was no longer obligatory to fast on this day, but it is still desirable (mustahabb).

    The virtues of fasting ‘Aashooraa’


    Ibn ‘Abbaas (may Allaah be pleased with them both) said:

    “I never saw the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) so keen to fast any day and give it priority over any other than this day, the day of ‘Aashooraa’, and this month, meaning Ramadaan.” (Reported by al-Bukhaari, 1867).

    The meaning of his being keen was that he intended to fast on that day in the hope of earning the reward for doing so. The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said:

    “For fasting the day of ‘Aashooraa’, I hope that Allaah will accept it as expiation for the year that went before.” (Reported by Muslim, 1976).

    This is from the bounty of Allaah towards us: for fasting one day He gives us expiation for the sins of a whole year. And Allaah is the Owner of Great Bounty.

    Which day is ‘Aashooraa’?


    Al-Nawawi (may Allaah have mercy on him) said: “ ‘Aashooraa’ and Taasoo’aa’ are two elongated names [the vowels are elongated] as is stated in books on the Arabic language. Our companions said: ‘Aashooraa’ is the tenth day of Muharram and Taasoo’aa’ is the ninth day. This is our opinion, and that of the majority of scholars. This is the apparent meaning of the ahaadeeth and is what we understand from the general wording. It is also what is usually understood by scholars of the language.” (al-Majmoo’)

    ‘Aashooraa’ is an Islamic name that was not known at the time of Jaahiliyyah. (Kashshaaf al-Qinaa’, part 2, Sawm Muharram).

    Ibn Qudaamah (may Allaah have mercy on him) said: “ ‘Aashooraa’ is the tenth day of Muharram. This is the opinion of Sa’eed ibn al-Musayyib and al-Hasan. It was what was reported by Ibn ‘Abbaas, who said:

    ‘The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) commanded us to fast ‘Aashooraa’, the tenth day of Muharram.’” (Reported by al-Tirmidhi, who said, a saheeh hasan hadeeth).

    It was reported that Ibn ‘Abbaas said: ‘The ninth,’ and reported that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) used to fast the ninth. (Reported by Muslim). ‘Ataa’ reported that he said, ‘Fast the ninth and the tenth, and do not be like the Jews.’ If this is understood, we can say on this basis that it is mustahabb (encouraged) to fast on the ninth and the tenth, for that reason. This is what Ahmad said, and it is the opinion of Ishaaq.”

    It is mustahabb (encouraged) to fast Taasoo’aa’ with ‘Aashooraa’

    ‘Abd-Allaah ibn ‘Abbaas (may Allaah be pleased with them both) said:

    “When the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) fasted on ‘Aashooraa’ and commanded the Muslims to fast as well, they said, ‘O Messenger of Allaah, it is a day that is venerated by the Jews and Christians.’ The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said, If I live to see the next year, in sha Allaah, we will fast on the ninth day too.’ But it so happened that the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) passed away before the next year came.” (Reported by Muslim, 1916).

    Al-Shaafa'i and his companions, Ahmad, Ishaaq and others said: “It is mustahabb to fast on both the ninth and tenth days, because the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) fasted on the tenth, and intended to fast on the ninth.”

    On this basis it may be said that there are varying degrees of fasting ‘Aashooraa’, the least of which is to fast only on the tenth and the best of which is to fast the ninth as well. The more one fasts in Muharram, the better it is.

    The reason why it is mustahabb to fast on Taasoo’aa’


    Al-Nawawi (may Allaah have mercy on him) said: “The scholars – our companions and others – mentioned several reasons why it is mustahabb to fast on Taasoo’aa’:

    1. the intention behind it is to be different from the Jews, who only venerate the tenth day. This opinion was reported from Ibn ‘Abbaas…

    2. the intention is to add another day’s fast to ‘Aashooraa’. This is akin to the prohibition on fasting a Friday by itself, as was mentioned by al-Khattaabi and others.

    3. To be on the safe side and make sure that one fasts on the tenth, in case there is some error in sighting the crescent moon at the beginning of Muharram and the ninth is in fact the tenth.”


    The strongest of these reasons is being different from the People of the Book. Shaykh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyah (may Allaah have mercy on him) said: “The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) forbade imitating the People of the Book in many ahaadeeth, for example, his words concerning ‘Aashooraa’: ‘If I live until the next year, I will certainly fast on the ninth day.’” (al-Fataawa al-Kubra, part 6, Sadd al-Dharaa’i’ al-Mufdiyah ila’l-Mahaarim )

    Ibn Hajar (may Allaah be pleased with him) said in his commentary on the hadeeth “If I live until the next year, I will certainly fast on the ninth day” and “What he meant by fasting on the ninth day was probably not that he would limit himself to that day, but would add it to the tenth, either to be on the safe side or to be different from the Jews and Christians, which is more likely. This is also what we can understand from some of the reports narrated by Muslim.” (Fath, 4/245).

    Ruling on fasting only on the day of ‘Aashooraa’


    Shaykh al-Islam said: “Fasting on the day of ‘Aashoraa’ is an expiation for a year, and it is not makrooh to fast only that day…” (al-Fataawa al-Kubra, part 5). In Tuhfat al-Muhtaaj by Ibn Hajar al-Haytami, it says: “There is nothing wrong with fasting only on ‘Aashooraa’.” (part 3, Baab Sawm al-Tatawwu’).

    Fasting on ‘Aashooraa’ even if it is a Saturday or a Friday


    Al-Tahhaawi (may Allaah have mercy on him) said: “The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) allowed us to fast on ‘Aashooraa’ and urged us to do so. He did not say that if it falls on a Saturday we should not fast. This is evidence that all days of the week are included in this. In our view – and Allaah knows best – it could be the case that even if this is true (that it is not allowed to fast on Saturdays), it is so that we do not venerate this day and refrain from food, drink and intercourse, as the Jews do. As for the one who fasts on a Saturday without intending to venerate it, and does not do so because the Jews regard it as blessed, then this is not makrooh…”(Mushkil al-Aathaar, part 2, Baab Sawm Yawm al-Sabt).

    The author of al-Minhaaj said: “ ‘It is disliked (makrooh) to fast on a Friday alone…’ But it is no longer makrooh if you add another day to it, as mentioned in the saheeh report to that effect. A person may fast on a Friday if it coincides with his habitual fast, or he is fasting in fulfillment of a vow, or he is making up an obligatory fast that he has missed, as was stated in a saheeh report.”

    Al-Shaarih said in Tuhfat al-Muhtaaj: “ ‘If it coincides with his habitual fast’ – i.e., such as if he fasts alternate days, and a day that he fasts happens to be a Friday. ‘ if he is fasting in fulfillment of a vow, etc.” – this also applies to fasting on days prescribed in sharee’ah, such as ‘Aashooraa’ or ‘Arafaah. (Tuhfat al-Muhtaaj, part 3, Baab Sawm al-Tatawwu’)

    Al-Bahooti (may Allaah have mercy on him) said: “It is makrooh to deliberately single out a Saturday for fasting, because of the hadeeth of ‘Abd-Allaah ibn Bishr, who reported from his sister: ‘Do not fast on Saturdays except in the case of obligatory fasts’ (reported by Ahmad with a jayyid isnaad and by al-Haakim, who said: according to the conditions of al-Bukhaari), and because it is a day that is venerated by the Jews, so singling it out for fasting means being like them… except when a Friday or Saturday coincides with a day when Muslims habitually fast, such as when it coincides with the day of ‘Arafaah or the day of ‘Aashooraa’, and a person has the habit of fasting on these days, in which case it is not makrooh, because a person’s habit carries some weight.”(Kashshaaf al-Qinaa’, part 2, Baab Sawm al-Tatawwu’).

    What should be done if there is confusion about the beginning of the month?

    Ahmad said: “If there is confusion about the beginning of the month, one should fast for three days, to be sure of fasting on the ninth and tenth days.” (al-Mughni by Ibn Qudaamah, part 3 – al-Siyaam – Siyaam ‘Aashooraa’).

    If a person does not know when Muharram began, and he wants to be sure of fasting on the tenth, he should assume that Dhoo’l-Hijjah was thirty days – as is the usual rule – and should fast on the ninth and tenth. Whoever wants to be sure of fasting the ninth as well should fast the eight, ninth and tenth (then if Dhoo’l-Hijjah was twenty-nine days, he can be sure of having fasted Taasoo’aa’ and ‘Aashooraa’).

    But given that fasting on ‘Aashooraa’ is mustahabb rather than waajib, people are not commanded to look for the crescent of the new moon of Muharram as they are to do in the case of Ramadaan and Shawwaal.

    Fasting ‘Aashooraa’ – for what does it offer expiation?


    Imaam al-Nawawi (may Allaah have mercy on him) said: “It expiates for all minor sins, i.e., it brings forgiveness of all sins except major sins.” Then he said (may Allaah have mercy on him): “Fasting the day of ‘Arafaah expiates for two years, and the day of ‘Aashooraa’ expiates for one year. If when a person says ‘Aameen’ it coincides with the ‘Aameen’ of the angels, he will be forgiven all his previous sins… Each one of the things that we have mentioned will bring expiation. If there are minor sins for which expiation is needed, expiation for them will be accepted; if there are no minor sins or major sins, good deeds will be added to his account and he will be raised in status… If he had committed major sins but no minor sins, we hope that his major sins will be reduced.” (al-Majmoo’ Sharh al-Muhadhdhab, part 6, Sawm Yawm ‘Arafaah).

    Shaykh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyah (may Allaah have mercy on him) said: “Tahaarah, salaah, and fasting in Ramadaan, on the day of ‘Arafaah and on ‘Aashooraa’ expiate for minor sins only.” (al-Fataawa al-Kubra, part 5).

    Not relying too much on the reward for fasting


    Some people who are deceived rely too much on things like fasting on ‘Aashooraa’ or the day of ‘Arafaah, to the extent that some of them say, “Fasting on ‘Aashooraa’ will expiate for the sins of the whole year, and fasting on the day of ‘Arafaah will bring extra rewards.” Ibn al-Qayyim said: “This misguided person does not know that fasting in Ramadaan and praying five times a day are much more important than fasting on the day of ‘Arafaah and ‘Aashooraa’, and that they expiate for the sins between one Ramadaan and the next, or between one Friday and the next, so long as one avoids major sins. But they cannot expiate for minor sins unless one also avoids major sins; when the two things are put together, they have the strength to expiate for minor sins. Among those deceived people may be one who thinks that his good deeds are more than his sins, because he does not pay attention to his bad deeds or check on his sins, but if he does a good deed he remembers it and relies on it. This is like the one who seeks Allaah’s forgiveness with his tongue (i.e., by words only), and glorifies Allaah by saying “Subhaan Allaah” one hundred times a day, then he backbites about the Muslims and slanders their honour, and speaks all day long about things that are not pleasing to Allaah. This person is always thinking about the virtues of his tasbeehaat (saying “Subhaan Allaah”) and tahleelaat (saying “Laa ilaaha ill-Allaah”) but he pays no attention to what has been reported concerning those who backbite, tell lies and slander others, or commit other sins of the tongue. They are completely deceived.” (al-Mawsoo’ah al-Fiqhiyyah, part 31, Ghuroor).

    Fasting ‘Aashooraa’ when one still has days to make up from Ramadaan


    The fuqahaa’ differed concerning the ruling on observing voluntary fasts before a person has made up days that he or she did not fast in Ramadaan. The Hanafis said that it is permissible to observe voluntary fasts before making up days from Ramadaan, and it is not makrooh to do so, because the missed days do not have to be made up straight away. The Maalikis and Shaafa’is said that it is permissible but is makrooh, because it means that one is delaying something obligatory. Al-Dusooqi said: “It is makrooh to observe a voluntary fast when one still has to make up an obligatory fast, such as a fast in fulfillment of a vow, or a missed obligatory fast, or a fast done as an act of expiation (kafaarah), whether the voluntary fast which is being given priority over an obligatory fast is something confirmed in sharee’ah or not, such as ‘Aashooraa’ and the ninth of Dhoo’l-Hijjah, according to the most correct opinion.” The Hanbalis said that it is haraam to observe a voluntary fast before making up any fasts missed in Ramadaan, and that a voluntary fast in such cases does not count, even if there is plenty of time to make up the obligatory fast. So a person must give priority to the obligatory fasts until he has made them up.. (al-Mawsoo’ah al-Fiqhiyyah, part 28, Sawm al-tatawwu’).

    Muslims must hasten to make up any missed fasts after Ramadaan, so that they will be able to fast ‘Arafaah and ‘Aashooraa’ without any problem. If a person fasts ‘Arafaah and ‘Aashooraa’ with the intention from the night before of making up for a missed fast, this will be good enough to make up what he has missed, for the bounty of Allaah is great.

    Bid’ahs common on ‘Aashooraa’


    Shaykh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyah (may Allaah have mercy on him) was asked about the things that people do on ‘Aashooraa’, such as wearing kohl, taking a bath (ghusl), wearing henna, shaking hands with one another, cooking grains (huboob), showing happiness and so on. Was any of this reported from the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) in a saheeh hadeeth, or not? If nothing to that effect was reported in a saheeh hadeeth, is doing these things bid’ah, or not? Is there any basis for what the other group do, such as grieving and mourning, going without anything to drink, eulogizing and wailing, reciting in a crazy manner, and rending their garments?

    His reply was: ‘Praise be to Allaah, the Lord of the Worlds. Nothing to that effect has been reported in any saheeh hadeeth from the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) or from his Companions. None of the imaams of the Muslims encouraged or recommended such things, neither the four imaams, nor any others. No reliable scholars have narrated anything like this, neither from the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him), nor from the Sahaabah, nor from the Taabi’een; neither in any saheeh report or in a da’eef (weak) report; neither in the books of Saheeh, nor in al-Sunan, nor in the Musnads. No hadeeth of this nature was known during the best centuries, but some of the later narrators reported ahaadeeth like the one which says, “Whoever puts kohl in his eyes on the day of ‘Aashooraa’ will not suffer from eye disease in that year, and whoever takes a bath (does ghusl) on the day of ‘Aashooraa’ will not get sick in that year,” and so on. They also reported a fabricated hadeeth that is falsely attributed to the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him), which says, “Whoever is generous to his family on the day of ‘Aashooraa’, Allaah will be generous to him for the rest of the year.” Reporting all of this from the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) is tantamount to lying.’

    Then he [Ibn Taymiyah (may Allaah have mercy on him)] discussed in brief the tribulations that had occurred in the early days of this ummah and the killing of al-Husayn (may Allaah be pleased with him), and what the various sects had done because of this. Then he said:

    ‘An ignorant, wrongful group – who were either heretics and hypocrites, or misguided and misled – made a show of allegiance to him and the members of his household, so they took the day of ‘Aashooraa’ as a day of mourning and wailing, in which they openly displayed the rituals of jaahiliyyah such as slapping their cheeks and rending their garments, grieving in the manner of the jaahiliyyah…

    The Shaytaan made this attractive to those who are misled, so they took the day of ‘Aashooraa’ as an occasion of mourning, when they grieve and wail, recite poems of grief and tell stories filled with lies. Whatever truth there may be in these stories serves no purpose other than the renewal of their grief and sectarian feeling, and the stirring up of hatred and hostility among the Muslims, which they do by cursing those who came before them…

    The evil and harm that they do to the Muslims cannot be enumerated by any man, no matter how eloquent he is. Some others – either Naasibis who oppose and have enmity towards al-Husayn and his family or ignorant people who try to fight evil with evil, corruption with corruption, lies with lies and bid’ah with bid’ah – opposed them by fabricating reports in favour of making the day of ‘Aashooraa’ a day of celebration, by wearing kohl and henna, spending money on one's children, cooking special dishes and other things that are done on Eids and special occasions. These people took the day of ‘Aashooraa’ as a festival like Eid, whereas the others took it as a day of mourning. Both are wrong, and both go against the Sunnah, even though the other group (those who take it as a day of mourning) are worse in intention and more ignorant and more plainly wrong…

    Neither the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) nor his successors (the khulafa’ al-raashidoon) did any of these things on the day of ‘Aashooraa’, they neither made it a day of mourning nor a day of celebration…

    As for the other things, such as cooking special dishes with or without grains, or wearing new clothes, or spending money on one’s family, or buying the year’s supplies on that day, or doing special acts of worship such as special prayers or deliberately slaughtering an animal on that day, or saving some of the meat of the sacrifice to cook with grains, or wearing kohl and henna, or taking a bath (ghusl), or shaking hands with one another, or visiting one another, or visiting the mosques and mashhads (shrines) and so on… all of this is reprehensible bid’ah and is wrong. None of it has anything to do with the Sunnah of the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) or the way of the Khulafa’ al-Raashidoon. It was not approved of by any of the imaams of the Muslims, not Maalik, not al-Thawri, not al-Layth ibn Sa’d, not Abu Haneefah, not al-Oozaa’i, not al-Shaafa'i, not Ahmad ibn Hanbal, not Ishaaq ibn Raahwayh, not any of the imaams and scholars of the Muslims.’ (al-Fataawa al-Kubra by Ibn Taymiyah)

    Ibn al-Haaj (may Allaah have mercy on him) mentioned that one of the bid’ahs on ‘Aashooraa’ was deliberately paying zakaat on this day, late or early, or slaughtering a chicken just for this occasion, or – in the case of women – using henna. (al-Madkhal, part 1, Yawm ‘Aashooraa’)

    We ask Allaah to make us followers of the Sunnah of His Noble Prophet, to make us live in Islam and die in a state of faith. May He help us to do that which He loves and which pleases Him. We ask Him to help us to remember Him and be thankful to Him, to worship Him properly and to accept our good deeds. May He make us of those who are pious and fear Him. May Allaah bless our Prophet Muhammad and all his family and companions.


    Rel
    ated topic:


    fatwa # 101268: What the Shi’ah do on ‘Ashoora’ is bid’ah (innovation) and misguidance

    - http://www.islamqa.com/en/ref/101268


    fatwa # 1407: Our attitude towards Yazeed ibn Mu’aawiyah

    - http://www.islamqa.com/en/ref/14007/yazeed
    Last edited by Muslim; Dec-4-2012 at 06:00 PM.

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    That which is recommended for the Muslim on the day of 'Aashooraa.

    Question:What is obligatory upon the Muslim to do on the day of 'Aashooraa.. (tenth day of Muharram), and is Zakaat al-Fitr obligatory (on that day)?

    Response: It is legislated for the Muslim to fast on the day of 'Aashooraa., for that which has been confirmed that the Prophet (sal-Allaahu `alayhe wa sallam) ordered fasting on (the day of) 'Aashooraa., however, when (the fasting of) Ramadhaan was obligated, whoever preferred to fast ('Aashooraa.) did so and whoever preferred not to (do so) did not. And there is no Zakaat al-Fitr (to be paid) on the day of 'Aashooraa. as there is on `Eed al-Fitr after the month of Ramadhaan.

    And with Allaah lies all the success, and may Allaah send prayers and salutations upon our Prophet Muhammad (sal-Allaahu `alayhe wa sallam) and his family and his companions.

    The Permanent Committee for Islaamic Research and Fataawa, comprising -
    Head: Shaykh 'Abdul 'Azeez ibn Abdullaah ibn Baaz;
    Deputy Head: Shaykh 'Abdur-Razzaaq 'Afeefee;
    Member: Shaykh 'Abdullaah Ibn Ghudayyaan
    Fataawa al-Lajnah ad-Daa.imah lil-Buhooth al-'Ilmiyyah wal-Iftaa. - Volume 10, Page 400, Fatwa No.10962


    --------

    The permissibility of fasting on the day of 'Aashooraa. only

    Question:Is it permissible to fast 'Aashooraa. just one day?

    Response: It is permissible to fast the day of 'Aashooraa. (tenth day of Muharram) just one day, however, it is better to fast the day before it or the day after it (also) and this is the established Sunnah of the Prophet (sal-Allaahu `alayhe wa sallam) who said: ((If I am (still) here next year, then certainly I shall fast the ninth (day of Muharram))), [(reported by) Muslim, Ahmad, Ibn Maajah, Ibn Abee Shaybah, at-Tahaawee, al-Bayhaqee and al-Baghawee]. Ibn 'Abbaass (radhi-yallaahu 'anhumaa) said: ((along with the tenth (day of Muharram))).

    And with Allaah lies all the success, and may Allaah send prayers and salutations upon our Prophet Muhammad (sal-Allaahu `alayhe wa sallam) and his family and his companions.

    The Permanent Committee for Islaamic Research and Fataawa, comprising -
    Head: Shaykh 'Abdul 'Azeez ibn Abdullaah ibn Baaz;
    Deputy Head: Shaykh 'Abdur-Razzaaq 'Afeefee;
    Member: Shaykh 'Abdullaah Ibn Ghudayyaan
    Fataawa al-Lajnah ad-Daa.imah lil-Buhooth al-'Ilmiyyah wal-Iftaa. - Volume 10, Page 401, Fatwa No.13700


    -------------

    Fasting voluntary fasts whilst having days (outstanding) from Ramadhaan


    Question:
    What is the ruling regarding the one who has days of fasting remaining from the month of Ramadhaan yet wishes to fast voluntary fasts or fast the day of 'Aashooraa. (tenth day of Muharram)? For example, he wants to fast both the tenth and eleventh days with the intention of making up (the missed fasts of Ramadhaan) and not the fast of the day of 'Aashooraa. Also, is it permissible for one to fast the day of 'Aashooraa., even if he has fasts to make up from the month of Ramadhaan? And is it permissible for one who has days to make up from Ramadhaan to fast the Day of 'Aashooraa. and the day before it or the day after it, with the intention of making up (what he has missed)?
    Response: He should not do the voluntary fast whilst he has a day or days to make up from Ramadhaan. Rather, he should begin by making up that which he has (outstanding) from Ramadhaan, then do the voluntary fast. Secondly, if he fasted the tenth and eleventh days of the month of Muharram with the intention of making up that which he has (outstanding) from the days he did not fast in the month of Ramadhaan, then that is permissible and sufficient in making up two days from that which he has outstanding; For that which the Prophet (sal-Allaahu `alayhe wa sallam) said: ((The reward of deeds depends upon the intentions and every person will get the reward according to what he has intended,...)).

    And with Allaah lies all the success, and may Allaah send prayers and salutations upon our Prophet Muhammad (sal-Allaahu `alayhe wa sallam) and his family and his companions.

    The Permanent Committee for Islaamic Research and Fataawa, comprising -
    Head: Shaykh 'Abdul 'Azeez ibn Abdullaah ibn Baaz;
    Deputy Head: Shaykh 'Abdur-Razzaaq 'Afeefee;
    Member: Shaykh 'Abdullaah Ibn Ghudayyaan;
    Member: Shaykh 'Abdullaah Ibn Qu'ood
    Fataawa al-Lajnah ad-Daa.imah lil-Buhooth al-'Ilmiyyah wal-Iftaa. - Volume 10, Page 401, Fatwa No.6774

    Last edited by Muslim; Dec-4-2012 at 06:01 PM.

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    Default Islamic Months

    Doing Voluntary Fast While Obligatory Fasts of Ramadan Remaining


    Question:
    I still have days to make up for Ramadaan and I want to fast ‘Ashoora’. Is it permissible for me to fast ‘Ashoora before I have made up the fasts I owe? Can I fast ‘Ashoora’ and the eleventh of Muharram with the intention of making up the Ramadaan fasts, and will I get the reward for fasting ‘Ashoora’?.

    Answer:

    Praise be to Allaah.

    Firstly:

    You should not observe voluntary fasts when you still owe one or more days from Ramadaan, rather you should start with the fasts that you owe from Ramadaan, and then observe voluntary fasts.

    Secondly:

    If you fast the tenth and eleventh of Muharram with the intention of making up days that you owe from Ramadaan, that is permissible and will make up for two of the days that you owe. The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said, “Actions are judged but by intentions, and every person will have but that which he intended.”

    Fataawa al-Lajnah al-Daa’imah, 11/401

    We hope that you will have the reward for making up the missed fast and the reward for fasting that day.

    Fataawa Manaar al-Islam, by Shaykh Muhammad ibn ‘Uthaymeen (may Allaah have mercy on him), 2/358.

    www.islamqa.com



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    Which month is the starting month in the Islamic Calendar?

    Quote Originally Posted by Muslim View Post
    The Islamic calendar is based on the year prophet Muhammad () and his fellow Muslims (known as Sahabah, the Companions) emigrated to Madinah in the year 622 C.E. (Christian Era). The emigration took place after thirteen years of persecutions by the disbelievers of Makkah. By the command of God, the Prophet left the city with his companion Abu Bakr Siddique (R.A.) and escaped a death threat by the disbelievers. The event marks the beginning of a second phase of the Islamic movement. It is the phase when Madinah became the center of an Islamic state.

    The Islamic calendar is lunar. Each month must begin with the evening when the new moon is sightable by the unaided naked eye. Muslims are obligated to sight the crescent in every country. Different countries may begin the year at different days based on their own sightings. The calendar is called Hijri calendar. The Arabic word Hijrah means emigration.

    Allah says in the Qur'an:

    "The number of months in the sight of Allah is twelve (in a year) - so ordained by Him the day He created the heavens and the earth...." (9:36).

    "It is He Who made the sun to be a shining glory, and the moon to be a light of beauty, and measured out stages for it, that you might know the number of years and the count of time. Allah did not create this except in truth and righteousness. And He explains His signs in detail, for those who understand" (10:5).


    And in his final sermon before his death, the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) said, among other things, "With Allah the months are twelve; four of them are holy; three of these are successive and one occurs singly between the months of Jumaada and Sha'ban."

    Islamic months begin at sunset of the first day, the day when the lunar crescent is visually sighted. The lunar year is approximately 354 days long, so the months rotate backward through the seasons and are not fixed to the Gregorian calendar. The months of the Islamic year are:



    1. Muharram ("Forbidden" - it is one of the four months during which it is forbidden to wage war or fight)

    Meaning: The word "Muharram" means "Forbidden." Even before Islam, this month was always known as a scared month in which all unlawful acts were forbidden, prominently the shedding of blood.

    Blessing:
    There are many bounties of this month, especially on 10th of Muharram.

    10th of Muharram: On this day he who spends more lavishly for the sake of his family members, Allah Ta'aalaa will bestow blessing upon the sustenance of the following year.

    Abu Qataada (R.A.) has related that the Prophet has reported to have said, It is my thought that by fasting on the 10th of Muharram Allah Ta'aalaa will pardon the sins of the past year. (Tirmizi)

    Events:


    Prior To Islam

    1. Prophet Adam (pbuh) was born and entered the Paradise on 10th of Muharram.
    2. Prophet Ayyub (pbuh) was cured from his illness.
    3. A way was made in the sea for Bani Israel.
    4. Prophet Suleman (pbuh) was ordained King.
    5. The oceans and heavens were created. (Tanbihul-Gaafileen)


    During Islam:


    1. Hadhrat Hussain (R.A.) was martyred in this month.

    2. Shaykhain Tirmizi & Haakim has narrated from Anas (R.A) that the following verse: "Allah may forgive thee of thy sins that which is past and that which is to come . . ." (Qur'an Al-Fath 48:2)
    was revealed on the 10th of Muharram.
    3. The Prophet Muhammed went to defeat Bani Muhaarin and Bani Tha'laba (Tribes of Bani Gatfan) in the year 4 A.H. (Asahhus-siyar)

    4. Qiyaamah will take place on the 10th of Muharram.



    2. Safar ("Empty" or "Yellow")

    Meaning: This word means "whistling of the wind". When this name was assigned to this month, it was probably a windy time of the year. As mentioned earlier, most of the months were named according to weather conditions at the time. However, since they are based on the moon, the months shift about 11 days every year. So, the seasons do not necessarily correspond to the name of the month anymore.

    Misconception:

    This time of the year was considered to be cursed as many catastrophes and calamities took place. However this belief has been proven to be false and totally without foundation (absurd).
    This can also be confirmed by the following hadeeth.
    Hadhrat Jaabir (R.A.) has said that, "I have heard the Prophet saying, the descending of illness and evil superstition befalling in the month of Safar is untrue." (Muslim)


    Events:


    1. The Battle of Abwaa took place on 12th of Safar in the year 2 A.H.
    2. The Battle of Khaibar took place in the year 7 A.H.
    3. Hadhrat Ali (R A ) married Prophet daughter Hadhrat Fatima (R.A.) in the latter days of Safar 2 A.H.
    4. Khubaib Ibn Adey (R.A.) was martyred in Safar in the year 4 A.H. in Makkah.
    5. Zaid Ibn Dathina (RA) was martyred in this month in the year 4 A.H. in Makkah.



    3. Rabia Awal ("First spring")


    Meaning: First month of spring. It seems it was spring time when the name was given.

    Events:


    1. The Holy Prophet was born in this month as mercy for all and departed from this world 63 years later.

    2. The Holy Prophet migrated from Makkah to Madinah Munawwarah.
    3. Battle of Buwaat took place in the year 2 A.H.
    4. Battle of Saf'vaan took place in the year 2 A.H.
    5. Abu Bakr's(R. A) daughter, Asma (R.A.) was born 6 years before Prophecy.
    6. Ruqayyah (R. A.) the daughter of the beloved Prophet was born 7 years before Prophecy.
    7. Abu Bakr (RA.) was appointed Caliph.
    8. Hadhrat Umme Kuithum was married in this month to the third Caliph; Uthman (R.A.) in 3 A.H.
    9. Wife of the Holy Prophet Zainab (RA.) passed away in the year 4 A.H.
    10. Ibrahim (RA.) the son of Maaria Qibtiya & of the Holy Prophet passed away in the year 10 A.H.


    4. Rabia Thani
    ("Second spring")

    Meaning: The second month of spring.

    Events:
    1. Battle of Furu' from Buhraan took place in 3 A.H Sariyyah-Battle in which the Holy Prophet did not take part in, instead he consigned one of his Companions as the colonel. The consigned: Sariyyah Ali Ibn Abi Talib in the 9th Hijri. Sariyyah-Ibn Alqamah Mujaazziz Mudlejee.

    2. Hadrat Khwaja Nizamuddin- 18th Rabi-ul-Akhir: 725 Hijri. Hadrat Sheikh Abdul Qadir Jilanee- 11th Rabi-ul-akhir: 561 Hijri passed away at the age of 90.


    5. Jumaada Awal ("First freeze")

    Meaning: The first month of summer. "Jumada" means dry.

    Events:


    1. The Battle "Moota" took place in 8 A.H. A war against infidels in which th Holy Prophet did not participate. Th battle is named after a famous city in Syria (Moota). Hadrat Zaid Ibn Haritha (R.A) was the first appointed General by the Holy Prophet
    2. In the same Battle Hadrat Khalid ibn Walid (fourth general of the Battle of Moota) was proclaimed by the Holy Prophet as being "one of the swords of Allah".
    3. The Holy Prophet married his first beloved wife; Hadrat Khadijah (R.A) 15 years prior to Prophecy.

    4. Deaths:


    Hadrat Zaid Ibn Haritha (R.A) met martyrdom in 8 A.H
    Hadrat Ja'far Ibn Abi Talib (R.A.) met martyrdom in 8 A.H.
    Hadrat Abdullah Ibn Rawaahah met martyrdom in 8 A.H.
    Hadrat Abdullah Ibn Uthman (R.A.) passed away.
    The Holy Prophet grandfather Abdul Muttalib passed away 32 years prior to prophency.


    6. Jumaada Thani ("Second freeze")

    Meaning: Second month of summer.

    Events:
    1. Battle of Salaasil took place in 8 A.H.
    2. Abu Salama (R.A) died in the year 4 A.H.


    7. Rajab ("To respect" - this is another holy month when fighting is prohibited)

    Meaning: From Rajaba "to respect". Another one of the sacred months in which fighting was forbidden prior to Islam. This was one of the most respected months for the Arabs. It is also called Rajab al Fard. Fard means alone; because the other three sacred months come one after another, except this month. It comes alone not like the other 3 consecutive sacred months.

    Events:


    1. The Holy Prophet ascended to Heaven on the 27th of Rajab on either Sunday or Monday (Mi'raaj).
    2. Hadhrat Bilal Ibn Haritha (R.A) brought a congregation of four hundred men named Banu Muzeena in the presence of the Holy Prophet . They all embraced Islam and became followers of the Holy Prophet in the year 5 A.H
    3. The battle of Tabook took place in the year 9 A.H. This was the last battle in which the Holy Prophet participated.
    4. The second Oath of Aqabah took place in Rajab, 12 A.H.


    5. Deaths:


    Imam Abu Hanifa (R.A) passed away on the 15th of Rajab 150 A.H.
    Imam Shafi'ee (R.A) passed away on the 14th Rajab 204 A.H.
    Imam Muslim (R.A) passed away on the 24th of Rajab 261 A.H.
    Imam Nawawee (R.A) passed away on the 14th of Rajab 677 A.H.


    8. Sha'ban ("To spread and distribute")

    Meaning: Consecutively escalating. (Undisturbed increase). Derived from the word "shu'ba", which means branch. The Arabs used to branch out during this month to look for water.

    Blessings:

    With the Arrival of the Shaban moon numerous blessings are showered upon us. Just as the initiation of rainfall begins with "pitter patter" such blessings reach us in the same accord and fashion.
    With the Beginning of Shaban blessings are initiated which progressively escalate so that by mid-Shaban the blessings have reached a considerable amount and finally such blessings reached a considerable amount and finally such blessings reach their peak by the end of Ramadan.

    For example just as a farmer prepares for a fruitful harvest by harrowing his acreage so that the soil may readily retain water, in contrast our souls are geared by the presence of such blessings in Shaban effectively preparing us for a fruitful and completely advantageous Ramadan.
    Our Holy Prophet has said, "Shaban is my month and Ramadan the month of Allah Ta'aalaa." (Daylami)


    Events:


    1. "Laila-tul Baraa'at (Night of forgiveness) the fifteenth night of Shaban.
    2. "Qibla", the direction to be adopted within salaah, was reverted back to the "Ka'aba" in Makkah (after being coverted to Baitul Muqaddas in Jerusalem for a short period of time). This took place two years after Hijraah on the 15th of Shaban.
    3. Fasting in the blessed month of Ramadan was made compulsory in the year 2 A.H. on the 25th of Shaban.
    4. Three years A.H. Hadhrat Hafsa (R.A) was joined in matrimony with the Prophet .
    5. In this very month forty two years later Hadhrat Hafsa (R.A) took leave from this world.
    6. The birth of the Prophet's grandson Hadhrat Hussain (R.A.) took place, four years on the fifth of Shaban.
    7. The battle of Banu Mustaliq took place in Shaban.
    8. During the above mentioned battle, the "Aayah of Tayammum" (Purifying with sand before salaah) was revealed, in the year 5 A.H.
    9. The daughter of the beloved Prophet Umme Kulthum (R.A.) took leave from this world, in the 9 A.H.


    9. Ramadan ("Parched thirst" - this is the month of daytime fasting)

    Meaning: Derived from "RAMADHA", literally means "intense heat". The possible reasons for this meaning:

    1. When the Islamic months were enforced the month of fasting coincided with the summer months of intense heat.
    2. The second reason which has been mentioned is that due to fasting the temperature within the stomach increases, again the element of heat is a factor behind the actual naming of RAMADAN.
    3. It has also been said that "RAMADHAA" is one of the names of Allah Ta'aalaa. If that is the case then the month has acquired the name due to the fact that Allah Ta'aalaa burns away accumulated sins and eliminates then from the list of unlawful deeds. Once again the burning sins cannonades "HEAT". However. it should be acknowledged that this reasoning is not wholly reliable.

    Blessings:

    Hadhrat Salmaan (R.A) reports that on the last day of Sha'baan the Messenger of Allah Ta'aalaa addressed then and said, "Oh people, there comes before you now a great month, a most blessed month in which lies a night more greater in virtue than 1,000 months; (LAYLATUL-QADR). It is a month in which each day should be observed by fasting, this has been made obligatory by the Almighty Allah."

    Events:
    1. Hadhrat Hasan (R.A.), Holy Prophet grandson was born on 15th of Ramadan, three years after Hijrah.
    2. Qur'an was revealed on the 27th night of Ramadan from the "Lauhe Mahfooz" (on 7th heaven) to 1st heaven.
    3. The first Battle in the Islamic History, "BATTLE OF BADR" took place on the 12th of Ramadan in year 2 A.H.
    4. Victory of Makkah took place on 18th of Ramadan in the year 8 A.H.
    5. Hadhrat Sawdah (R.A) was married in year 10 A.H. to the Holy Prophet
    6. Hadhrat Zainab Bint Khuzaima's (R.A.) marriage took place in the year 3 A.H. to the Holy Prophet .

    7. Deaths:

    i) Hadhrat Ruqayyah (R.A), Holy Prophet daughter, passed away at the young age of 23 in the year 2 A.H when the Prophet was at "Battle of Badr".
    ii) Hadhrat Khadijah (R.A), wife of the Holy prophet departed from this world on the 11th of Ramadan in the year 10 A.H.
    iii) Hadrat Fatimah (R.A) took leave from the world on a Tuesday 3rd Ramadan in the year 11 A.H. (6 months after the death of Holy Prophet she was only 29 years old.)
    iv) Hadrat Abbas (R.A.) the Holy Prophet uncle passed away on a Friday 12th Ramadan in the year 32 A.H at the age of 88
    v) Hadrat Ali (R.A.) the Prophet son-in-law departed from this world on Friday 27th Ramadan, age 57 in the year 40 A.H.
    vi) Hadhrat Saffiyah (R.A.) took leave from this world in the year 50 A.H., aged 60 years.
    vii) Hadhrat Aa'ishah (R.A.) was 65 years old when she departed in the year 58 A.H.



    10. Shawwal ("To be light and vigorous")

    Meaning: Uplift/breakage, as before Islam, Arabs believed that any marriage held in Shawwal would always turn out to be unsuccessful. Taken from the word "shala" which means "when the female camel gets pregnant". When this name was given, the female camels used to get pregnant during this time of the year.

    Blessings:


    The first day of Shawwal is Eid-Ul-Fitr, the day of festival and when all sins are forgiven as a reward for fasting and prayers in the month of Ramadan.
    Its Sunnah ( Tradition of Holy Prophet ) to fast for six days in Shawwal, as narrated in the following Hadeeth by Abu Ayyub Ansaru (R.A) that the Holy Prophet has said, "If one throughout his life keeps the fasts of Ramadan and keeps six consecutive fasts in Shawwal it will be as though he has kept a whole life time of fasts, and if one fast for six consecutive days in Shawwal it will be as though he has fasted all year round."
    (Muslim)
    Events: 1. Hadhrat Aa'ishah Siddiqah (R.A) was born in Shawwal, 4 years after Prophethood and 9 years before Hijrah.
    2. Hadhrat Aa'ishah Siddiqah (R.A.) was married to Holy Prophet in Shawwal, 10 years after Prophethood which is 3 years before Hijrah.
    3. The fight between Banu Qaynaqaa took place between the battle of Badr and Uhud, Shawwal 2 A.H. after Hijrah.
    4. The battle of Uhud also took place in Shawwaal, three years after Hijrah.
    5. Hadhrat Hussain (R.A) Holy Prophet's grandson (son of Hadhrat Fatima R.A.) was born in the month of Shawwaal 4 years after Hijrah.
    6. The Holy Prophet married Hadhrat Umme Salamah (R.A.) in Shawwal in the 4 year after Hijrah.
    7. Hadhrat Aa'ishah Siddiqah's (R.A) mother passed away in year 5 A.H.
    8. The Holy Prophet's uncle Abu Talib departed from this world in the middle of Shawwal in the year 5 A.H.
    9. Imam Bukhari (R.A.) was born on a Friday of Shawwaal in the year 194 A.H.



    11. Dhul-Qi'dah ("The month of rest" - another month when no warfare or fighting is allowed)

    Meaning: Taken from the word "qa'ada" which means to sit. This is the third sacred month in which fighting was forbidden. The people also used to stop their business activities during this month and sit and prepare for the Hajj (Pilgrimage). This is also a sacred month.

    Events:

    1. The battle of 'khandaq (trench) or Ahzab' took place in the year 5 A.H.
    2. In the year 6 A.H.-Truce of Hudaubiyah.
    3. In the year 6 A.H 'Bay'at-e-Rizwaan' (The oath of allegiance named Rizwaan).
    4. The return to Makkah for Umrah by Holy Prophet and his Companions in the year 7 A.H.



    12. Dhul-Hijjah ("The month of Hajj" - this is the month of the annual pilgrimage to Makkah, again when no warfare or fighting is allowed)

    Meaning: The month of "Hajj" (Pilgrimage). This is the last sacred month in which fighting was forbidden.

    Blessings:


    The fifth pillar of Islam "Hajj" is performed in this sacred month. The first ten days of Zul-Hijjah are the most virtuous days in this whole month, Hajj is performed amongst these ten days.

    Hadhrat Abu Haraira (R.A) reports from the Holy Prophet : "Amongst all days there are none better to engage in sole worship of Allah than in the ten days of Zul-Hijjah, To observe a fast on any of these days is equivalent to fasting throughout the year, to actively engage in prayer and worship throughout any of these nights holds such rewarding values leveling with "night of power" (Laylatul-Qadr) "Tirmizi"

    It has been stated in the Holy Qur'an, "By the dawn; By the ten nights (ie. the first ten days of the month of Zul-Hijjah), and by the even and the odd (of all the creations of Allah) and by night when it departs. There is indeed in them (the above oaths) sufficient proofs for men of understanding. (and that they should avoid all kinds of sins and disbelief)"
    Hadhrat Abi Qataadah (R.A) reports in a part narration from the Holy Prophet concerning the fast observed on the day of Arafaat: "I have full confidence in Allah for the one who observes a fast on the day of Arafaat that his previous year's sins and the proceeding year's sins are forgiven."
    (Muslim)

    Events:

    1. The Prophet performed the farewell Hajj and gave the historic sermon known as the "Farewell Sermon"
    2. Egypt was conquered by the army sent by Hadhart Umar (R.A.)
    3. Uthmaan (R.A.) was appointed the third Caliph
    4. "Bay'ate-Aqabah"
    5. Hadhrat Fatimah (R.A.) was married in this holy month to the fourth Caliph Hadhrat Ali (R.A.)

    Deaths:

    i) Hadhrat Umar (R.A.) met martydom- 27th of Zul-Hijjah in the year 26 A.H.
    ii) Hadhrat Uthmaan (R.A) was martyred- 18th Zul-Hijjah in the year 35 A.H.




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    Quote Originally Posted by fatimataybia46 View Post
    Which month is the starting month in the Islamic Calendar?
    The post you quoted has all the months numbered in order.


 

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